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You are here: Penwith on the Web/Living in Penwith/Sustainable Development and Improvement (Planning and Building Control)/Local Plan
Penwith District Local Plan
Adopted 2004
12 TRANSPORTATION
This Chapter in PDF format (205Kbs)
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INTRODUCTION
POLICY BACKGROUND
POLICIES AND PROPOSALS
Transport Proposals
POLICY TP-1
Transport Services
POLICY TP-A
POLICY TP-B
POLICY TP-3
Sea Transport
POLICY TP-4
Cyclists
POLICY TP-5
Pedestrians
POLICY TP-6
POLICY TP-7
Main Road Network
Non-Strategic Roads
POLICY TP-8
Roadside Facilities
POLICY TP-9
Freight Transport
POLICY TP-10
Rear Servicing
POLICY TP-11
Parking
POLICY TP-12
POLICY TP-13
Summary of POLICIES and PROPOSALS
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Local Plan Menu
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1 Introduction
2 The Local Plan Area
3 Plan Strategy
4 Objectives
5 General Development Guidance
6 Coast and Countryside
7 Towns and Villages
8 Housing
9 Employment
10 Tourism
11 Recreation
12 Transportation
13 Community Services
14 Environmental Appraisal
15 Monitoring and Review
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Proposals Map
Inset Map
Glossary
Plan Help
Terms and Conditions
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12. TRANSPORTATION
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12.1 INTRODUCTION

12.1.1 The issue of sustainability is frequently raised in relation to transportation matters, particularly with reference to road transport and the use of the private car. There is clearly a need to pursue planning policies that encourage a reduction in the use of the car and place a greater emphasis on using other types of transport. Greater use of public and alternative modes of transport will reduce both pollution and congestion and make a small but significant contribution towards safeguarding the environment. However, it is important to acknowledge that, in rural areas where the public transport networks are limited, there is a considerable reliance on the private car for essential journeys.

12.1.2 The Highways Agency, on behalf of the Department for Transport, is responsible for all major works on trunk roads, while the County Council is the Local Highway Authority having responsibility for the improvement and maintenance of the county roads and Public Right of Way network. Orders for the control of on-street parking are also the responsibility of the County Council whilst the provision and maintenance of off-street parking is a dual function of the County and District Councils. Parish Councils may also provide off-street parking. The Transport Act of 1985 redefined the role of the County Council in respect of public transport and the County Council's function is restricted primarily to the provision of socially needed services not provided by the free market.

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12.2 POLICY BACKGROUND

12.2.1 Policy Planning Guidance "Development Plans and Regional Planning Guidance" (PPG 12) and emerging PPS 12 ''Local Development Frameworks'' indicates that development plans should contain policies and proposals on transport issues including land use policies related to traffic management and details of schemes. PPG 13 "Transport" clearly identifies that there are significant links between transport and land-use. The PPG reiterates the Government's support for sustainable development and recognises that an effective transport system is vital. However, continued reliance on road transport, with its consequent environmental effects, is seen as a major challenge to the objective of sustainable development. The PPG addresses a number of issues including the relationship between transport and planning, location of development, complementary transport measures, provision of transport infrastructure and transport priorities and access to development. At a more detailed level guidance is given on such matters as car parking, provision for pedestrians and cyclists, traffic management, public transport, park and ride schemes, aviation, freight movements and developer contributions.

12.2.2 The Regional Planning Guidance (RPG 10) acknowledges that good communications are vital to the economic health of the South West and objectives for achieving an integrated and balanced transport system are outlined. Road congestion is identified as a problem in terms of delay, pollution and environmental damage and it is accepted that further road building is not generally likely to provide the solution. The guidance anticipates plans addressing all forms of transport and emphasises the need to locate development in such a way as to reduce the need to travel and offer a choice of means of transport. In addition the guidance stresses the need to provide roadside services, maximise the use of public transport, ensure an adequate rail network exists, provide facilities for pedestrians and cyclists and encourage movement of freight by road and rail. The strategic and regional significance of port facilities and air services is also recognised.

12.2.3 The Structure Plan places emphasis on reducing the need to travel and increasing the use of public transport and alternatives to the private car. It also seeks to safeguard and improve facilities for rail and air travel. Specifically, need was identified in the Structure Plan for an inter-modal rail terminal in West Cornwall, which has lead to the development of the Penzance Interchange. The Interchange has substantially enhanced the railway station environs, the bus and coach station, and the heliport shuttle bus pick up/set down point; whilst also assisting passenger flow between these locations. Transport policies in the Structure Plan also include guidance on parking, Primary and County Routes, road improvements and major schemes, and roadside service facilities.

12.2.4 The Government's White Paper 'A New Deal for Transport: Better for Everyone' replaced the previous Transport Policies and Programme (TPP) system with the 'Local Transport Plan' (LTP). Instead of the annual bidding process of the TPP system where funds were allocated for individual schemes, the LTP is designed to provide a new process for drawing up transport strategies which cover all modes of transport and links them together in a five year programme. The first LTP covers the period 2001-2006, and is reviewed annually, to ensure that the aims and objectives are being met. Through the LTP, Cornwall County Council seeks to identify both long and short term objectives, whilst deciding on an overall transport strategy and setting out individual policies and proposals to deliver this. A new Local Transport Plan will be prepared for the period 2006-2011.

12.2.5 Given the remoteness of the County, and the need to maintain and develop the communications network, one of the key transport themes to emerge from the 2004 Structure Plan, will be Accessibility (Policy 28, 2004). Accessibility concerns the improvement of access from rural communities to services and facilities. People's general levels of accessibility can vary a lot, depending on location, age, income and mobility impairment. It is important, therefore, that new development is well located in order to reduce the need to travel in the first instance, or to provide the opportunity to use more sustainable ways of travel to access key services. The Community Plan, Penwith 'A Vision for the Future' (2003) supports this aim through Objective C1, which seeks to maintain the number of local residents who find it easy to access services.

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12.3 POLICIES AND PROPOSALS

12.3.1 The provisions of PPG 12, (PPS 12) and PPG 13 place the consideration of certain aspects of transportation firmly within the purview of the development plan system. It is important that transport facilities and networks provide an adequate framework to support development initiatives which are of social and economic benefit to the community. However, a range of the Plan's objectives are relevant to transportation issues and are particularly important in environmental terms. A key Plan objective is to pursue a pattern of development which reduces the need to travel, allows for alternatives to the private car and is well related to existing transport networks. This approach is carried forward through the policies of other sections of the Plan as well as in this section. Other relevant objectives include the promotion of energy efficiency, encouraging improved facilities for public transport users, cyclists and pedestrians, maintaining the viability and vitality of the main town centres, safeguarding accessibility and amenity and protecting the character and special values of the District.

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Transport Proposals

12.3.2 The Local Plan presents a significant opportunity to direct development in such a way as to reduce reliance on road transport, with its consequent energy consumption, pollution and congestion, and to provide for greater and more efficient use of public transport. However, the achievement of any significant change in emphasis must necessarily be viewed as a medium to long-term target and in the meantime there is still a need to address the existing transportation requirements and problems of the District. In a rural area such as Penwith, where public transport facilities are restricted and there is a heavy reliance on the private car for essential journeys, there is still a need to accommodate the current needs of the motoring public in terms of movement and parking. This situation is further compounded by the influx of largely car-borne visitors during the summer season. If the problems associated with this issue are to be properly and fully addressed it must be as part of an integrated transport policy that encompasses not only land use matters but also includes a role for adequate and convenient public transport networks and a wider consideration of the movement of freight.

12.3.3 In view of the Local Plan's key role in endeavouring to achieve development which is sustainable it is appropriate to state clearly at this point the general approach to proposals related to transport. POLICY TP-1 identifies therefore that, as a matter of principle, such proposals will be acceptable where they provide for the use of alternatives to car and lorry transport or have public safety or wider environmental advantages.

12.3.4 POLICY TP-1:

TRANSPORTATION PROPOSALS WILL BE PERMITTED PROVIDED THAT THEY:-

(i) WOULD FACILITATE ALTERNATIVES TO THE PRIVATE CAR OR HEAVY ROAD FREIGHT TRANSPORT;

(ii) ARE NECESSARY FOR PUBLIC SAFETY OR TO ACHIEVE A TRAFFIC IMPROVEMENT; OR

(iii) WOULD ACHIEVE OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS IN TERMS OF A REDUCTION IN POLLUTION, CONGESTION, USE OF ENERGY OR TRIP GENERATION.

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Transport Services

Public Transport Facilities

12.3.5 The provision of adequate public transport, which includes 'bus, rail, air and sea services, is important in reducing energy consumption and pollution. If people are to be persuaded to use public transport the level of service and quality of facilities must be such as to make it attractive to potential customers. While the County Council has a direct but limited part to play in the provision of services the District Council has no such role. However, the Council is in a position to lobby for the retention or improvement of services and, as planning authority, to respond positively to appropriate proposals for new or improved facilities.

12.3.6 Policy TRAN 1 (Policy 27, 2004) of the Structure Plan places a strong emphasis on development proposals being assessed in terms of their potential to be served by public transport. This approach, which supports the strategic aims of Policy SP 2 (Policy 1, 2004), makes the availability of public transport an important consideration in dealing with development proposals and the Local Plan therefore seeks to maintain the existing level of accessibility to such facilities and to ensure that new provision is fully meshed with existing networks. The extent to which such proposals meet the requirement of POLICY TP-1 (para. 12.3.4) will be an important consideration. In some cases public transport facilitates can be large in scale and it is essential that they are in keeping with their surroundings and are acceptable within the terms of POLICY GD-1 (para. 5.3.3). In addition the provisions of POLICY GD-2 (para. 5.3.7) particularly criteria (v) and (vi), are important in ensuring greater integration and mobility.

12.3.7 POLICY TP-2:

PROPOSALS FOR DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD PROVIDE PUBLIC TRANSPORT FACILITIES WILL BE PERMITTED PROVIDED THAT:-

(i) THEY WOULD BE WELL INTEGRATED WITH TRANSPORT NETWORKS AND COMPATIBLE WITH THE STRATEGIC PUBLIC TRANSPORT NETWORK; AND

(ii) THEIR FORM, BULK AND GENERAL DESIGN WOULD BE IN KEEPING WITH THE CHARACTER OF THEIR SURROUNDINGS.

PROPOSALS FOR THE RELOCATION OR REPLACEMENT OF EXISTING FACILITIES WILL NOT BE PERMITTED WHERE THEY WOULD BE LESS CONVENIENT OR ACCESSIBLE TO POTENTIAL USERS.

Note:
The Strategic Public Transport Network within the District is:-

Inter-Urban – between the main towns
Penzance-Camborne via Hayle -Bus,Train
Penzance-Camborne via Marazion, Leedstown -Bus
Penzance-Helston via Porthleven -Bus
Penzance-Land's End via St Buryan, Sennen -Bus
Penzance-Mousehole via Newlyn -Bus
Penzance-St Ives via Lelant -Bus, Train
Penzance-St Ives via Nancledra, Halsetown -Bus

12.3.8 The Transport Act, 1985 came into operation in October 1986 when the principle of Road Service Licensing was abolished and any 'bus company meeting “O” License requirements became free to run a local service. The County Council has a duty to secure the provision of those services which it considers appropriate to meet demand but only in relation to services which would not otherwise be provided commercially. The trend towards smaller 'buses, combined with deregulation, has resulted in a more frequent and widespread network of services. In recent years various community transport initiatives have been instigated within the County where the level of passengers has been insufficient for a traditional 'bus service.

12.3.9 The Community Plan, Penwith 'A Vision for the Future' (2003) supports the need for a move toward promoting public transport as a viable alternative to the private car. Objective T1 looks to increase the number of journeys by bus services in Cornwall from 8.965m to 9.063m by 2006; while Objective T3 is to work with First Devon & Cornwall to improve the current bus services in Penwith and Objective T4 addresses the need to maximise the number of community bus schemes being developed in Penwith.

12.3.10 Penzance 'bus station provides the centre of the network in the District for services to St. Just, St. Ives, Hayle and the other main settlements. There is also a daily national service to destinations throughout the country. While it has no direct role in the provision or support of 'bus services the Council will continue to lobby for the retention and improvement of the existing level of services. The Malakoff 'bus station in St. Ives is limited in size but nevertheless offers a facility which is convenient to the town centre and which is considered extremely difficult to replace. In both Penzance and St. Ives the 'bus stations are located in close proximity to the railway terminals with, in each case, only a car park separating the facilities. POLICY TP-3 (para. 12.3.19) aims to protect both operational railway land and other areas that are significant because of their potential for future transport use and therefore, in view of the high degree of accessibility the 'bus stations offer to the towns and the valuable opportunities they provide for effective road/rail interchange, it is essential that these facilities be retained in their present use.

12.3.11 PROPOSAL TP-A:

AN AREA AT THE MALAKOFF, ST IVES (Link to Map 2) (0.05 HECTARE) IS RESERVED FOR A 'BUS STATION.

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12.3.12 PROPOSAL TP-B:

THE AREA OF PENZANCE 'BUS STATION (Link to Map 1) (0.3 HA) WILL BE RESERVED FOR THAT USE.

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Rail

12.3.13 Penwith is served by the main railway line which runs through Cornwall and there is a branch line which connects St. Ives to St. Erth. The retention of existing rail links through the County and Penwith are essential to the local economy. Policy TRAN 2 (Policy 28, 2004) of the Structure Plan states that development proposals should not prejudice the use of the railway for passenger or goods transport including currently disused lines and facilities. Priority is also given to safeguarding existing services and opportunities for new stations on the main line. Policy TRAN 4 (Policy 28, 2004) identifies that development proposals should, where appropriate and practical, have regard to the need to encourage the carriage of freight by rail. Any reduction in the level of service is likely to have an effect on the attractiveness of the District as a business and holiday location and would be likely to increase car usage. The overnight 'Sleeper' service between Penzance and Paddington is important in terms of business and tourism links and it is also important that there is a direct rail link with the Channel Tunnel. The Council will continue to oppose any moves to further limit the rail service to the District and will lobby for the retention and enhancement of the rail network.

12.3.14 A number of improvements to the station facilities at Penzance have been carried out in recent years including modernisation of the booking and enquiry office, construction of a new refreshment room and extension of the car park. This work has culminated in the development of the Penzance Interchange. The town is fortunate in having both the rail and 'bus stations adjacent to each other and located conveniently for the shopping centre and the sea link to the Isles of Scilly and it is important that the station is retained in its present location.

12.3.15 The St. Ives branch line is a very attractive route and initiatives to improve the quality of the environment for rail users throughout the District are being actively pursued in conjunction with Wessex Trains, the current operators. The Strategic Rail Authority have announced plans to designate this branchline as a pilot line for 'Community Railway' status which should further boost the passenger numbers along this line, and also increase tourism to the area.

12.3.16 Penwith District Council operates a very successful Park & Ride initiative from Lelant Saltings to St Ives along the branchline, in conjunction with the County Council and Wessex Trains. The Community Plan, Penwith 'A Vision for the Future' (2003) supports this operation through Objective T5 which is to 'promote the Park & Ride scheme and explore the potential for additional sites'.

12.3.17 A Trans European Network (TEN) study has shown that rail investment could reduce journey times between Penzance and London and facilitate greater use of rail for freight transport. Given the anticipated growth of the economy resulting from Objective 1, such improvements would transfer some of the demand for travel and goods movement from road to rail. While it is not possible to be specific about the precise requirement for land adjacent to railway lines it is important to safeguard sites where there may be potential for access to rail freight transport or opportunities to provide integration of transport modes.

12.3.18 In addition Policy TRAN 2 (Policy 28, 2004) of the Structure Plan indicates that local plans should identify land affected by the considerations outlined in paragraph 12.3.13 and should include any other public transport infrastructure intended to be brought back into use. Such land is limited in Penwith, nevertheless there are some areas that are crucial to the future use of the railway for the movement of passengers and freight. The car parks at both Penzance and St Ives Station were, in part, previously operational railway land and, in view of their close relationship with the existing railway and 'bus stations, it is essential that they are retained for integrated transport use. In recognition of the significance of the road/rail interchange opportunities offered at both St Ives and Penzance, PROPOSALS TP-A and TP-B (paras. 12.3.11 and 12.3.12) seek to retain the 'bus stations in the towns in their present use. There is an area of land at Ponsandane, which lies alongside the main line approach to Penzance, that includes sidings, loading banks and a 'bus garage. This area has potential for the movement of freight or use as a park and ride facility for the town. At St Erth Station there are two areas of sidings that offer opportunities to handle freight. The siding to the north of the main line has recently been used to load scrap metal and PROPOSAL E-C (para. 9.3.65), which allocates land to the south of the station for employment purposes, links development of the site with the use of the sidings for the movement of freight. The station car park is also important as an element of road/rail interchange in the District. In the east of the District the site of Gwinear Road station and its associated sidings provide an extensive area where it is possible to meet the criteria for the provision of new sidings which could provide a rolling stock storage facility. The following policy therefore seeks both to protect operational railway land from conflicting uses and the areas identified above for transport related use.

12.3.19 POLICY TP-3:

ON OPERATIONAL RAILWAY LAND PROPOSALS FOR DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD CONFLICT WITH RAIL USE WILL NOT BE PERMITTED. THE NON-OPERATIONAL, UNDER USED OR DISUSED SITES LISTED BELOW WILL BE PROTECTED FOR FUTURE INTEGRATED TRANSPORT USE:-

PENZANCE STATION CAR PARK (Link to Map 1)

PONSANDANE, PENZANCE (Link to Map 10)

ST ERTH, SIDINGS SOUTH OF THE MAIN LINE (Link to Map 14)

ST ERTH, SIDINGS NORTH OF THE MAIN LINE AND THE STATION CAR PARK (Link to Map 14)

ST IVES STATION CAR PARK GWINEAR ROAD (Link to Map 2)

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Air

12.3.20 Both the Heliport at Eastern Green and Land's End Aerodrome near St. Just are important for their links with the Isles of Scilly and the facility they offer for air travel to other destinations. Both are also important to the economy and transport infrastructure of the District. Policy TRAN 3 (Policy 27, 2004) of the Structure Plan states that provision should be made for the continued use and development of smaller airfields in the County unless this would lead to significant adverse effects on the landscape, best and most versatile agricultural land, nature conservation, historic environment or amenity of the area. New development within the identified safeguarded areas of these two locations will be considered in relation to their operational needs.

12.3.21 The retention and improvement of the heliport close to Penzance, with good existing road and rail links close by, is supported by the Council. Land's End Aerodrome is an important facility which provides for the operation of fixed wing aircraft and while the runways are not surfaced the passenger accommodation and hangars have been progressively improved. The aerodrome is situated within a number of designated areas namely Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Heritage Coast and Area of Great Historic Value. These designations reflect the importance of this particular landscape and while the airport's continued operation is supported it is essential that any further upgrading of the range or scale of the facilities under POLICY TP-2 (para. 12.3.7) respects its sensitive location and the provisions of POLICIES CC-3, CC-5 and CC-16 (paras. 6.3.13, 6.3.21 and 6.3.81) will be important in the consideration of specific proposals.

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Sea Transport

12.3.22 The use of sea transport as a contributor to the transportation needs of the District has declined throughout this century. However, the existing port facilities represent a considerable investment and, in the light of the need to encourage alternative means of moving heavy goods and bulk cargoes, they still have potential for future developments. This is particularly relevant in relation to the ports of Penzance and Hayle, however Newlyn, St. Ives and other smaller harbours may also have a role to play. It is important to note that many of these facilities are located in or adjacent to designated areas, Conservation Areas or sensitive marine habitats. The Structure Plan contains a number of policies relevant to the development of port facilities. Policy MAR 1 (Policy 4, 2004) makes it clear that development proposals relating to the coast, estuaries and marine environment should be considered against the need to conserve the marine environment for its own sake and for the economic importance of the activities it supports while Policy MAR 2 emphasises the need to avoid pollution of marine and coastal waters. Policy MAR 4 recognises the need to protect existing waterside sites within the developed coast for maritime industrial or leisure activities and Policies MAR 5 and MAR 6 support improved facilities for the fishing industry and firms in the maritime sector. In addition Policy TRAN 4 identifies that development proposals should, where appropriate and practical, have regard to the need to encourage the carriage of freight by water.

12.3.23 Within the context of the policies outlined above the Local Plan seeks to safeguard existing port facilities from developments which would prejudice their operation and to provide for improvements where these are properly related to the existing transport infrastructure and in keeping with their surroundings. In considering proposals for the development of port and harbour facilities the policies for the protection of the coast and countryside, designated areas and Conservation Areas (Section 6 and Section 7) will be particularly important.

12.3.24 POLICY TP-4

PROPOSALS FOR DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD INHIBIT OR INTERFERE WITH THE EFFICIENT AND SAFE OPERATION OF PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES WILL NOT BE PERMITTED. PROPOSALS TO IMPROVE SUCH FACILITIES WILL BE ACCEPTABLE PROVIDED THAT:-

(i) THEY WOULD BE WELL INTEGRATED WITH TRANSPORT NETWORKS APPROPRIATE TO THE USE PROPOSED; AND

(ii) THEIR FORM, BULK AND GENERAL DESIGN WOULD BE IN KEEPING WITH THE CHARACTER OF THEIR
SURROUNDINGS

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Penzance Harbour (Link to Map 1)

12.3.25 It is the Council's intention that the operation of the harbour should continue and be available for passenger traffic, the shipment of commercial cargoes, the continuation of the dry dock operation and other related activities. A number of schemes have been undertaken to improve the facilities in the harbour and increase its attractiveness to both resident and visitor users. The need to ensure that new development is related to the harbour and does not hinder the operation of the wet and dry docks is identified in POLICY TV-24 (para. 7.3.79).

12.3.26 The sea link to the Isles of Scilly provided by the 'Scillonian' and 'Gry Maritha' is an important element of the activity in the Harbour. The operating company at present offers a summer service utilising the 'Scillonian' supported by the 'Gry Maritha' carrying cargo and a more limited winter service using the 'Gry Maritha' supported by the fixed wing air services from Land's End Aerodrome. The 'Scillonian' is berthed in the Wet Dock over the winter period. These arrangements appear to work satisfactorily and have eased the problems associated with berthing the 'Scillonian' on a regular basis in the winter which sometimes caused problems in inclement weather conditions. However, there still remains a need to provide improved facilities for passengers and cargo handling (PROPOSAL TV-B, para. 7.3.81), taking full account of health and safety issues.

12.3.27 Proposals for a major expansion of the port facilities at Penzance have been mooted but have not been independently examined to the satisfaction of the Authority. However, preliminary technical investigations are to be carried out in the context of the Route Partnership proposal to improve the Isles of Scilly link, through development of both St Mary's and Penzance harbours. In assessing proposals for Penzance Harbour the fact that it lies within the Conservation Area (POLICY TV-6, para. 7.3.19) and the Historic Settlement (POLICY TV-14, para. 7.3.38) will be an important consideration.

Hayle Harbour (Link to Map 3)

12.3.28 The harbour has been reopened to commercial traffic after a long period of closure during which it was only utilised by small craft and fishing vessels. A number of proposals to revitalise the harbour have been put forward linked to a range of associated development such as housing, holiday accommodation and leisure facilities but to date none of these have come to fruition and the condition of the port facilities and approach channels remains poor.

12.3.29 The port of Hayle represents a potentially valuable resource on the north coast of the District and the Council will continue to pursue initiatives, in conjunction with the private sector, that will lead to the regeneration and revitalisation of this crucial area of the town. In particular there will be an emphasis on ensuring that the best use is made of the port facilities for commercial and leisure use and the provision of improved job opportunities. Section 7 (paras. 7.3.104 to 7.3.119) contains details of the overall policy approach and PROPOSAL TV-D (para. 7.3.119) relates specifically to redevelopment of the harbour area. It should be noted that several nature conservation policies (Section 6) are relevant to the harbour and estuary.

Newlyn Harbour (Link to Map 8)

12.3.30 Newlyn is one of the most important fishing ports in the country. A substantial amount of local revenue is raised by the activities in and around the port and the amount of employment generated is vital to the economy of the District. Policies MAR 4 to 6 (Policy 4, 2004) of the Structure Plan are particularly relevant to Newlyn Harbour. The facilities of the harbour have been improved in recent years including the provision of a new quay, increased parking and a refurbishment of the fish market. The Harbour Commissioners are pursuing a programme of continued improvements, following from the proposals in the Newlyn Regeneration Study. Within the confines of the harbour the provision of such facilities does not require planning permission. As identified in Section 9 there is limited land available around Newlyn Harbour for supporting activities and accordingly POLICY E-9 (para. 9.3.39) places an additional emphasis on safeguarding such areas over and above that contained in Policy MAR 4 (Policy 4, 2004) of the Structure Plan. The harbour is within the Conservation Area and the provisions of POLICY TV-6 (para. 7.3.19) will be relevant in considering development proposals. The movement of heavy vehicles to and from the port causes problems of congestion and this issue was considered in the Penzance Transport Study (para. 12.3.56).

St. Ives Harbour (Link to Map 2)

12.3.31 The harbour at St. Ives is different in nature to those at Penzance, Hayle and Newlyn and while fishing is still important the significant uses are tourism and leisure orientated. It is anticipated that the balance of use will not change significantly during the plan period and that St. Ives Harbour will continue to be a focus for the holiday industry while still providing a valuable local facility for fishing. The St Ives Harbour Enhancement and Preservation report (Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management, 2002), was prepared on behalf of the District Council and provides an action plan to support the fishing industry and provide opportunities for economic diversity.

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Cyclists

12.3.32 The bicycle is becoming an increasingly popular means of transport for both functional and leisure use. However, its growth in popularity is not always reflected in provision for cyclists within the traffic network or built environment. As a result riding a cycle in modern traffic flows can at best be intimidating and at worst very hazardous. The use of the bicycle as an alternative to the private car for short or frequent journeys will result in energy savings and a reduction in fuel emissions. The National Cycling Strategy was launched in 1996, with the aim to increase the use of bicycles for all types of journey, and with a target to quadruple the number of trips made by bicycle by 2012 on 1996 levels. The County Council supports these targets and is working to see them achieved by establishing a culture favourable to the increased use of bicycles by means of traffic management and infrastructure improvements, land use and development control policies. Policy TRAN 5 (Policy 28, 2004) of the Structure Plan states that development proposals should make appropriate provision for encouraging journeys by bicycle and POLICY GD-2 (para. 5.3.7) requires that development makes provision for cycling which is safe, convenient and attractive and where appropriate includes secure cycle parking. The County Council is also actively pursuing the provision of improved facilities for cyclists within individual road schemes and as part of transportation 'packages' being developed in selected towns. In addition funding has been secured, in partnership with Sustrans and a number of other bodies, towards the development of the National Cycle Network through Cornwall. Known as the 'Cornish Way', the first route opened in June 2000, and now consists of six inter-linking trails for cyclists and pedestrians from Bude to Lands End. The County Council has also established a Cycle Forum which consists of officers from the district councils, the highways authority and cycle users and groups. The District Council fully supports the County Council in its efforts to provide and promote better facilities for cyclists, and the Community Plan also advocates the development of cycle networks through Objective T8.

12.3.33 POLICY TP-5:

PROPOSALS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXISTING AND POTENTIAL CYCLE ROUTES AND PARKING FACILITIES WILL BE ACCEPTABLE PROVIDED THAT THEY ARE SAFE, SECURE, CONVENIENT AND ATTRACTIVE.

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Pedestrians

12.3.34 In an age of increasing traffic flows, and consequent conflict between pedestrians and vehicles, every opportunity should be taken to improve both the safety of pedestrians and their environment. The need to provide for journeys on foot is identified in Policy TRAN 5 (Policy 28, 2004) of the Structure Plan and POLICY GD-2 (para. 5.3.7) requires the provision of safe, convenient and attractive facilities for pedestrians in new developments; which also provide for the needs of those with restricted mobility. Within the towns and villages there are many pedestrian routes which it is important to protect. These routes may be relatively insignificant in the overall patterns of movement but are important as shortcuts, as a means of avoiding areas of congestion or busy roads, or for recreational purposes. Where new development takes place it is important that such pedestrian routes are not lost.

12.3.35 POLICY TP-6:

PROPOSALS FOR DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD ADVERSELY AFFECT, OR RESULT IN THE LOSS OF, ROUTES WITHIN TOWNS AND VILLAGES WHICH PROVIDE CONVENIENT OR ATTRACTIVE LINKS FOR PEDESTRIANS WILL NOT BE PERMITTED.

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12.3.36 Public rights of way, which are the responsibility of the County Council, are identified on the Definitive Map and have statutory protection. These rights of way are particularly important in facilitating access to the countryside (para. 11.3.36) and often provide essential links between towns and villages and the open areas around them. It is essential that, when applications for development are received that might affect them, including equestrian related applications, the enjoyment, practicality and convenience of their continued use, or of any diversion should be carefully considered. Where opportunities arise to improve or supplement the existing network these will be acceptable in principle.

12.3.37 POLICY TP-7:

PROPOSALS FOR DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD DIRECTLY, OR INDIRECTLY, AFFECT EXISTING RIGHTS OF WAY MUST NOT RESULT IN THEIR CONTINUED USE BEING LESS SAFE, CONVENIENT OR ATTRACTIVE.

PROPOSALS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE EXISTING RIGHTS OF WAY SYSTEM WILL BE ACCEPTABLE.

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Main Road Network

12.3.38 The main roads within the District carry considerable holiday traffic and, although several major improvements have been undertaken, congestion increasingly occurs at peak times, particularly on the A30. A scheme to improve the length of the A30 between the site of the former creamery at St. Erth and Newtown has been withdrawn from the Trunk Road Programme. However, it is considered that there is a pressing need to alleviate the congestion that occurs in Crowlas and to improve the environment of the village by eliminating through traffic and the Council has continued to lobby for the necessary improvements along this length of road through the Highways Agency 'Route Management Strategy' for the A30.

12.3.39 Policy TRAN 7 (Policy 27, 2004) of the Structure Plan states that new development proposals should be compatible with the effective management and safe movement of traffic having regard to the importance of the defined Primary and County Routes. In addition, direct access to Primary Routes should be avoided. The priorities for road schemes will be targeted on the Primary Route Network and Policy TRAN 8 indicates that these will have regard to meeting housing and employment priorities, improving safety, complementing management measures and achieving environmental benefits. The Primary Route Network in the District comprises the A30 from the boundary to Mount Misery, Penzance and the A394 from the District boundary to Newtown.

12.3.40 The County Route Network comprises the A3074 and C159/B3311 from the A30 to St. Ives, A3071 from Penzance to St. Just, the B3306 from St. Just to the A30 and the B3302 and B3301/C750 from Hayle to the District boundary. Policy TRAN 9 (Policy 27, 2004) states that road schemes which would have significant adverse effects on landscape, agricultural, conservation, historic or amenity values will be unacceptable unless such impacts can be mitigated. In addition all schemes included in Proposal TRAN A will be the subject of detailed environmental appraisal. The second Local Transport Plan for 2006-2011 (para.12.2.4) will provide a programme for future road schemes.

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Non-Strategic Roads

12.3.41 Continuing pressure to improve roads in both urban and rural areas to accommodate greater traffic flows can result in serious harm to the townscape and character of the countryside. As identified in paragraph 12.3.40 Policy TRAN 9 (Policy 27, 2004) of the Structure Plan seeks to limit the impact of road schemes and it is essential that, if the special character of the District is to be protected, unsympathetic or unnecessary highway improvements are avoided. This is particularly so in the rural areas where much of the District is served by narrow roads, bordered by locally distinctive Cornish hedges. The meandering nature of many existing routes with consequent limitations on visibility is likely to result in reduced vehicle speeds which could, in certain circumstances, act as a traffic calming mechanism.

12.3.42 Within the District various minor road improvement schemes are likely to be undertaken by the highway authority during the Plan period. Frequently such schemes do not require planning permission and usually relate to visibility and footway improvements. Where an improvement is justified on highway safety grounds it is important that it is subject to a sensitive landscaping treatment and that natural and man made features, which contribute to the character of the locality, are retained. Where hedgerows and hedges are removed their replacement within the scheme will facilitate habitat re-establishment. This approach is complementary to POLICY CC-12 (para. 6.3.57) which seeks to resist developments which would result in the loss of trees, woodland, hedgerows and Cornish hedges and landscaping proposals must comply with POLICY GD-3 (para. 5.3.9). The use of stone from the locality will be important in retaining locally characteristic features. POLICY TP-8 is intended to apply to those road improvement schemes which require planning permission and it supplements the provisions of POLICY GD-5 (para. 5.3.13) which relates to highway alterations required as part of a specific development proposal.

12.3.43 POLICY TP-8:

WHERE A ROAD IMPROVEMENT SCHEME IS NECESSARY ON HIGHWAY SAFETY GROUNDS THE DESIGN WILL BE REQUIRED TO RETAIN LOCAL CHARACTERISTIC NATURAL AND MAN MADE FEATURES AND, IN THE COUNTRYSIDE, TO PROVIDE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OR REINSTATEMENT OF HEDGEROWS AND CORNISH HEDGES.

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Roadside Facilities

12.3.44 In a predominantly rural area, such as Penwith, the development of high profile roadside facilities in the open countryside can have a serious detrimental impact on the landscape and cause problems of noise and light pollution. In addition there are economic advantages, in terms of sustaining the viability and suitability of existing centres, in seeking greater use of facilities in the towns and villages or by developing further facilities in or adjacent to those settlements which can accommodate them. In terms of trunk roads Circular 4/88 indicates that there is a need for fuel, parking, toilet and refreshment facilities to be provided and the suggested minimum distance between petrol filling stations and associated facilities should be 12 miles and the maximum 25 miles. Planning Policy Guidance "Transport" (PPG 13) also identifies, in Annex A, that the Government wishes to encourage the development of key sites with a range of facilities. Where these are located in open countryside special consideration should be paid to landscaping. Policy TRAN 10 of the Structure Plan indicates that the provision of this type of facility should be well integrated with existing development and where the need for additional facilities outweighs any adverse environmental impact.

12.3.45 Within Penwith the A30, from Roseworthy to Penzance, is the only length of trunk road. There is a focus of roadside facilities at Loggans, Hayle that includes a service station, restaurants and hotel. At Chiverton Cross, which is 15 miles to the east and in Carrick District, there is a restaurant and fuel facilities and there is a similar provision at the western end of the A30 on the approach to Penzance. In view of Penwith's location the majority of nonresident traffic entering the District either ends its journey within the area or remains for a relatively short period and it is considered that the existing developments are sufficient to satisfy the minimum distance requirements of Circular 4/88. The development of additional facilities on these sites will be acceptable provided that the activities proposed are in keeping with the surroundings and any impact on the wider landscape is minimised. Proposals for motels will be considered within the context of POLICY TM-3 (para. 10.3.12) and landscaping schemes will be expected to comply with POLICY GD-3 (para. 5.3.9).

12.3.46 POLICY TP-9:

PROPOSALS FOR ROADSIDE FACILITIES WILL NOT BE PERMITTED WHERE THEY WOULD HARM THE CHARACTER OF THE COUNTRYSIDE OR THE SETTING OF A TOWN OR VILLAGE. ON THE PRIMARY ROUTE NETWORK ADDITIONAL PROVISION WILL GENERALLY BE LIMITED TO EXISTING ROADSIDE SITES. THE DEVELOPMENT MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH SURROUNDING USES AND ITS IMPACT WITHIN THE WIDER LANDSCAPE MUST BE MINIMISED THROUGH SCREENING, TREES AND PLANTING.

Note: The primary route network within Penwith comprises the A30 from the District boundary to Mount Misery, Penzance and the A394 from the District boundary to Newtown.

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Freight Transport

12.3.47 The location of Penwith results in goods being transported a great distance from outside the area in order to reach their outlets in the District. There is an increasing emphasis on the use of large lorries and, while the main roads into the District are basically capable of accommodating such vehicles, many of the towns and villages, smaller lanes and some minor roads within Penwith are not. The Structure Plan places a strong emphasis on development proposals having regard to the need to encourage the movement of freight by rail and water and the need for the intermodal rail terminal in West Cornwall (Policy TRAN 4). Policy TRAN 2 also identifies that the use of the railway for goods transport should not be prejudiced by development proposals. One opportunity in the District exists on the former creamery site at St. Erth which is reserved for industrial and business uses by PROPOSAL E-K (para. 9.3.87).

12.3.48 The rural road network of the District is characterised by narrow, twisting lanes bordered by substantial stone hedges and many parts of the urban areas are served by streets of limited width. As identified in paragraph 12.3.41 highway schemes intended to accommodate a greater volume of traffic or larger vehicles can have an adverse impact on the rural and urban character of the District. The provision of trans-shipment facilities, where incoming goods could be transferred to small delivery vehicles and outgoing produce and products loaded into large lorries or containers, could offer considerable environmental benefits to the District. In order to maximise the benefits, any such facility needs to be accessible from the primary route network or to have potential for connection to the rail network. Ideally it would be accessible to both. In addition good access would be required to the intended collection and distribution area and the development should be compatible with surrounding uses, with any impact on the wider landscape minimised through screening and planting. Landscaping proposals will be expected to comply with POLICY GD-3 (para. 5.3.9). While the provision of this type of facility is supported by the approach to the movement of freight in PPG 13 "Transport" their development would depend on their operation proving to be a viable proposition which offered sufficient advantage to local companies and hauliers to offset the difficulties of additional handling of goods.

12.3.49 POLICY TP-10:

PROPOSALS FOR TRANS-SHIPMENT FACILITIES WILL BE PERMITTED PROVIDED THAT THE SITE:-

(i) IS EASILY ACCESSIBLE FROM THE PRIMARY OR COUNTY ROUTE NETWORK AND/OR HAS POTENTIAL FOR RAIL CONNECTION AND

(ii) IS ACCESSIBLE FROM ITS RELATED DISTRIBUTION OR COLLECTION AREA.

THE DEVELOPMENT MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH SURROUNDING USES AND ITS IMPACT IN THE WIDER LANDSCAPE MUST BE MINIMISED THROUGH SCREENING, TREES AND PLANTING.

Note: The primary route network within Penwith comprises the A30 from the District boundary to Mount Misery, Penzance and the A394 from the District boundary to Newtown.

12.3.50 The District's location results in a significant amount of incoming goods being delivered by long distance lorries and there is a need to provide secure overnight parking for some of these vehicles. Provision has been made in the Penzance area, notably at Newlyn for fish lorries and at Wherrytown car park and the northern end of Albert Pier. The last two sites mentioned are also used by coaches for both day time and over-night stops. The existing provision is broadly sufficient and it is unlikely that the District Council will be in a position to develop further facilities of this type. It is essential therefore that the present provision is not eroded and opportunities to provide further parking for heavy vehicles will be kept under review and supported where appropriate.

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Rear Servicing

12.3.51 Opportunities to provide such facilities to many shops in the towns in the District are severely limited by the physical nature of the centres. In most cases the environmental benefits of removing traffic from the shopping streets would be more than offset by the adverse effect of the access improvements on the street scene and the intimate, enclosed nature of the towns.

12.3.52 St. Ives experiences problems of congestion which are acute in the summer months when there is more traffic in the town and vehicles unloading goods in the narrow streets exacerbate the difficulties. However, due to the historic nature of the town and the fact that the area in question lies within the Conservation Area, this problem cannot readily be solved in a satisfactory manner. The use of smaller vehicles, perhaps operating from a trans-shipment depot (POLICY TP-10 para. 12.3.49), may provide part of the answer. While measures to calm traffic and provide improved on-street parking have been undertaken in Hayle the town still suffers some degree of seasonal congestion.

12.3.53 The delivery of goods in the main shopping streets of Penzance has long caused problems of congestion, with attendant danger to both pedestrians and motorists. The worst problems occur in Market Jew Street, Alverton Street, Causewayhead, Queen's Square and the upper part of Chapel Street. The problem has, to some extent, been alleviated in Causewayhead by pedestrianisation, although there is still concern over loading and unloading during shopping hours. Bread Street provides rear access to some shops on the northern side of Market Jew Street, and POLICY TV-22 (para. 7.3.73) safeguards this and permits improvements to existing servicing in this area. On the southern side of the main street the former Tesco, Pioneer, Courts, Woolworths and Boots have private access to the rear of their stores. The configuration of the central shopping area does not readily lend itself to the provision of additional rear servicing but PROPOSAL TV-A (para. 7.3.68) identifies that redevelopment proposals for the former Cornwall Farmers Limited site must include provision for rear access from Jennings Street to serve part of the south side of Market Jew Street. The County Council's traffic management proposals for Market Jew Street will also make provision for improved unloading arrangements.

12.3.54 It is accepted that generally it is difficult to provide rear access facilities to commercial premises in the main towns. However, where opportunities arise through redevelopment or other proposals, every effort should be made to improve servicing arrangements to individual units or groups of units subject to the impact on the character and environment of the town centre being acceptable. POLICIES TV-1, TV-6 and TV-14 (paras. 7.3.5, 7.3.19 and 7.3.38) relating to development affecting the character of settlements, Conservation Areas and Historic Settlements will be important in considering such proposals.

12.3.55 POLICY TP-11:

WHERE DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS IN TOWN CENTRES PROVIDE THE OPPORTUNITY FOR NEW OR IMPROVED REAR ACCESS ARRANGEMENTS THEY SHOULD BE PROVIDED WHERE POSSIBLE.

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Parking

General

12.3.56 Planning Policy Guidance "Transport" (PPG 13) identifies that the availability of car parking has a major influence on the choice of means of transport. In particular local authorities are expected to adopt lower requirements for locations with good access by other means of travel than the private car, be flexible in the requirements for residential off-street parking in order to achieve good, high density development, ensure parking requirements in general are kept to the operational minimum, not require developers to provide more spaces than they wish and ensure that parking provision at peripheral developments is not set at high levels which would disadvantage central areas. The PPG also identifies that authorities should seek to encourage the redevelopment or reuse of existing private parking to bring them down to revised standards and refuse planning permission for parking developments which do not meet strategic aims. The concept of seeking 'commuted payments' in lieu of parking provision to assist public transport or walking and cycling is also introduced. Structure Plans are the principal means of integrating strategic transport and planning policies. Policy TRAN 6 (Policy 28, 2004) of the Structure Plan states that car parking should be kept to the operational minimum and that consistent standards should be set between the larger urban areas, namely Truro, Penzance, Falmouth, St. Austell and Newquay, to avoid competition. The amount of parking provision together with the level of charges in these main towns are issues being addressed by the County Council. The County Council is also responsible, as the Highway Authority, for determining the parking requirements relevant to specific proposals and a range of factors is taken into account including the type of use, location, operational and non-operational requirements, degree of congestion and relevance of commuted payments. A Transport Study was carried out for Penzance which provides the basis for developing transport and traffic management proposals.

12.3.57 Within Penwith various factors influence demand for parking provision ranging from seasonal changes to fluctuations determined by the time of day, the day of the week and the weather. The parking provision in each of the main centres is briefly outlined in paragraphs 12.3.63 to 12.3.68. In general terms most of the existing car parks are conveniently located and, although the influence of visitors in the summer months results in pressure on car park capacity, they are capable of accommodating most of the demand. Parking charges are reviewed by the Council annually and are related to the intended use of individual car parks. Permanent and seasonal staff are employed to ensure that the parking policy of the Authority is properly enforced. There is a limited number of privately owned car parks in the urban areas and, in general, few existing developments in the towns include more than minimal associated parking facilities. A significant element of the population of the District is reliant on the private car for journeys for work, shopping or leisure. It is not considered appropriate, therefore, to pursue measures to reduce the amount of existing public or private parking until alternative opportunities for public transport, cycling and walking are enhanced to the point where they represent a practical alternative.

12.3.58 Provision for car parking in proposals for development will vary, depending on the site's accessibility by means other than the private car. Where such access is good, the requirement for parking can be reduced and, in line with County Council guidance, maximum standards have been identified and there is no minimum provision. However, as a consequence of the high level of reliance on the private car within Penwith it is likely that some provision for non-operational parking will generally be required. Such provision could be made in alternative locations which provide good access to the development on foot or by public transport services such as in town 'bus routes or park and ride facilities. This approach will permit flexibility in determining the overall parking requirement for developments and facilitate alternative methods of meeting those requirements. The ability to locate non-operational elements on alternative sites, thereby keeping the on-site provision to the minimum, will assist in achieving high density, good quality developments which make effective use of their sites. In major developments commuted payments may be required to fund alternative car parking or other transport measures and initiatives.

12.3.59 POLICY TP-12:

THE PROVISION OF CAR PARKING IN DEVELOPMENT MUST BE RELATED TO THE PROPOSED USE, THE LOCATION, THE AVAILABILITY OF OR POTENTIAL FOR ACCESS BY ANY OTHER MEANS THAN THE PRIVATE CAR AND THE AMOUNT OF EXISTING PUBLIC PARKING PROVISION IN THE LOCALITY.

THE LEVEL OF CAR PARKING PROVISION IN DEVELOPMENT WILL NOT EXCEED THE FOLLOWING MAXIMUM STANDARDS:-
FOOD RETAIL THRESHOLD >1000SQM - 1 SPACE PER 14SQM GROSS FLOOR AREA
NON FOOD RETAIL THRESHOLD >1000SQM - 1 SPACE PER 25 SQM GROSS FLOOR AREA
D2 INCLUDING LEISURE THRESHOLD >1000SQM - 1 SPACE PER 25 SQM GROSS FLOOR AREA
B1 INCLUDING OFFICES THRESHOLD >2500SQM - 1 SPACE PER 35 SQM GROSS FLOOR AREA
B2 EMPLOYMENT - 1 SPACE PER 50 SQM GROSS FLOOR AREA
B8 WAREHOUSING - 1 SPACE PER 200 SQM GROSS FLOOR AREA
HOSPITALS - 1 SPACE PER 4 STAFF AND 1 SPACE PER 3 VISITORS AND TRAVEL PLAN REQUIRED
HIGHER AND FURTHER EDUCATION THRESHOLD >2500SQM - 1 SPACE PER 2 STAFF AND 1 SPACE PER 15 TOTAL POSSIBLE STUDENTS AND TRAVEL PLAN REQUIRED
ALL OTHER SCHOOLS - 1 SPACE PER 2 STAFF AND TRAVEL PLAN REQUIRED.
  OTHER SPACES WILL REQUIRE JUSTIFICATION
STADIA - 1 SPACE PER 15 SEATS THRESHOLD >1500
SEATS CINEMAS, CONFERENCE CENTRES, PLACES OF WORSHIP THRESHOLD >1000SQM - 1 SPACE PER 5 SEATS
COMMUNITY CENTRES - 1 SPACE PER 5 SQM OF FLOOR SPACE
FOOD AND DRINK - 1 SPACE PER 5 SQM OF FLOOR SPACE
HOUSING
CCC THRESHOLD -50 UNITS FOR DETAILED TRANSPORT ASSESSMENT
- 1 SPACE PER UNIT WHERE  HIGHLY ACCESSIBLE. 2 SPACES PER UNIT ELSEWHERE. 1.5 SPACES PER UNIT NOT TO BE EXCEEDED OVERALL IN LARGER DEVELOPMENTS.
STUDIO, BEDSITS - 1 SPACE PER 3 UNITS
SHELTERED HOUSING - 1 SPACE PER 4 UNITS
OLD PEOPLES HOMES - 1 SPACE PER 6 RESIDENTS AND
- 1 SPACE PER 2 STAFF
HOTELS - 1 SPACE PER BEDROOM PLUS ALLOWANCE FOR OTHER FACILITIES
DISABLED PARKING - 5% (MIN.) OF ALL USES EXCEPT C3
CYCLE PROVISION - 4% (MIN.) OF ALL USES EXCEPT C3
MOTORCYCLE/MOPED PROVISION - 2% (MIN.) OF ALL USES EXCEPT C3

THERE WILL BE NO MINIMAL PROVISION.

MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS WILL BE SUBJECT TO TRANSPORT ASSESSMENTS AND MAY BE EXPECTED TO CONTRIBUTE TO IMPROVING ACCESS BY PUBLIC TRANSPORT, WALKING AND CYCLING.

Note: B1, B2, B8 and D2 are classes of land uses defined in the Town and Country Planning Act (Use Classes) Order 1987 (as amended).

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12.3.60 As identified in paragraph 12.3.57 the parking provision within the District and the main centres in particular, is broadly sufficient to cope with demand. While the advice in PPG 13 is acknowledged it is not considered appropriate or prudent to pursue any reduction in the amount of available parking until practical alternatives to the use of the private car for journeys to work and for shopping and leisure are in place. Unilateral action on this issue would be likely to prejudice seriously the competitiveness of the centres in the District. The specific issues relating to Penzance and St. Ives, including the relevance of further park-and-ride, will be considered within the context of a Parking Solutions Study to be commissioned jointly between the County Council and the District Council. (para. 12.3.56).

12.3.61 While a reduction in car parking capacity is not considered achievable at present it is accepted that careful control needs to be exercised over the provision of additional parking. There will, nevertheless, be circumstances where the benefits that would accrue from additional parking would justify such provision. Each existing town and village is a centre of commercial and social activity which is readily accessible to the local population. The continued health of these centres is vital in terms of the local delivery of services with a consequent limitation on the need to travel. The provision of additional car parking which would directly assist the viability and vitality of these centres will be acceptable. Many of the more densely developed parts of the urban areas suffer from problems of congestion, lack of residents' parking and conflict between vehicles and pedestrians and the provision of off-street parking could be instrumental in achieving improvements in conditions in such areas. Equally, uncontrolled parking in the countryside can be visually intrusive, lead to damage to verges and hinder the operation of agricultural enterprises. Car parking targeted at alleviating such difficulties which fall within the purview of POLICY R-6 (para. 11.3.40) will therefore be acceptable. Finally car parking will be permitted where it is directly linked to encouraging the use of alternatives to the private car, such as park-and-ride schemes. Where existing parking provision is already instrumental in achieving one of the above benefits its loss to other uses or redevelopment will not be permitted.

12.3.62 POLICY TP-13:

NEW CAR PARKS WILL NOT BE PERMITTED UNLESS THEY:-

(i) RELOCATE EXISTING PROVISION TO BENEFIT THE ECONOMIC OR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF A TOWN CENTRE;

(ii) RELOCATE EXISTING PROVISION TO EASE CONGESTION OR CONFLICT IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS;

(iii) FACILITATE INCREASED USE OF, OR INTEGRATION WITH, ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF TRANSPORT TO THE PRIVATE CAR.

A REDUCTION IN THE AMOUNT OR CONVENIENCE OF EXISTING OFF-STREET PARKING WHICH MEETS CRITERIA (i) TO (iii) ABOVE WILL NOT BE PERMITTED. IN ALL CASES THERE SHOULD BE NO OVERALL INCREASE IN PARKING PROVISION.

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Penzance (Link to Map 1)

12.3.63 Within Penzance there is, overall, sufficient off-street parking space with adequate capacity for the summer period. Parking provision is relatively evenly distributed throughout the town. The largest car park (816 spaces) is located adjacent to the harbour and 'bus station and it makes a valuable contribution to the parking needs of the town. Development of the Wharfside shopping centre has significantly improved its relationship with, and accessibility from, the town centre. Additional car parks to the west and north of the centre have a combined capacity of in excess of 660 spaces whilst St. Anthony's car park to the south of the town centre caters predominantly for the promenade area and summer visitors. The District Council administers all car parks except Wellfields which is the responsibility of the Town Council. In terms of on-street parking, there are problems in certain streets where commuter and town centre orientated parking is prevalent combined with difficulties in accommodating parking associated with guest houses or houses in multiple occupation and the redevelopment of urban sites for housing.

12.3.64 The feasibility and practicality of implementing a park-and-ride scheme and residents' parking scheme was assessed as part of the Penzance Transport Study and remains to be addressed. Suitable potential sites exist to the east of the town on former operational railway land and, subject to further investigation, opportunities to provide a 'park and ride' facility to serve the town will be progressed in the context of regeneration proposals. A site at Ponsandane is safeguarded by Policy TP-3 (para.12.3.19) for further integrated transport use.

Hayle (Link to Map 3 and Link to Map 17 and Link to Map 18)

12.3.65 In Hayle there are two main car parks at Foundry and Commercial Road, Copperhouse which cater for motorists visiting the two shopping centres. At Copperhouse there is also a major supermarket with its own parking area. In addition to off-street parking provision there is limited on-street parking along Penpol Terrace, Fore Street and other streets adjacent to the shopping areas. There are no proposals for further parking provision in Hayle other than that associated with the harbour redevelopment proposals (PROPOSAL TV-D, para.7.3.119).

St. Ives (Link to Map 2 and Link to Map 15 and Link to Map 16)

12.3.66 There are several public car parks in or near the centre of St. Ives with a total capacity in excess of 800 spaces. In addition there are a further 1000 spaces available in Trenwith car park, which overlooks the town. Like many coastal towns the car parks come under severe pressure in the height of the holiday season and in order to reduce the congestion, and limit the number of cars in the narrow streets of the town, there are 'park and ride' services from Trenwith car park and Lelant Saltings to the centre. The latter service is provided in cooperation with Wessex Trains and the County Council.

12.3.67 Concern about traffic conditions in St. Ives has resulted in a local study being carried out and this should provide useful input to the Parking Solutions Study. However, in view of the highly seasonal nature of the problems in St. Ives it is not considered appropriate to pursue any definitive proposals for additional parking until such time as the findings of the Parking Solutions Study are available.

St. Just (Link to Map 4)

12.3.68 Within St. Just Lafrowda car park is the main parking area with some additional space in Bank Square and Market Square. Despite the fact that parking is free, and the existence of direction signs on both the B3306 and the A3071, the Lafrowda car park is under used with on-street parking elsewhere being favoured. The other small areas mentioned above provide convenient parking in the centre of the town and are often both full. The District Council will support measures to bring about greater use of the Lafrowda car park, particularly by visitors to the town.

Other Settlements

12.3.69 Problems of on-street parking and congestion sometimes occur in the smaller settlements and villages for example Mousehole and along the B3280, which runs through the centre of Goldsithney. These issues will be addressed as resources become available. However, it is possible that measures to alleviate on-street parking problems may be promoted by, and financed from sources, other than the District Council. Where such opportunities arise proposals will be considered in the context of POLICY TP-13 (para. 12.3.62) and, for those villages close to Penzance, the Penzance Transport Study.

Parking on the Coast and in the Countryside

12.3.70 The coast and countryside of the District is important in terms of the recreational opportunities they provide for both residents and visitors. However, in certain areas and at peak holiday times excessive demand for parking can cause problems or over-use, erosion and congestion to the point where the intrinsic value of the area is threatened. There is a number of existing car parks throughout the rural area associated with visitor attractions, local beauty spots, view points, heritage features and access points to the coast and the footpath network. In most cases these are in locations which have limited, or no, public transport services. As identified in POLICY TP-13 (para. 12.3.62) new car parks will be permitted where they are intended to alleviate problems of uncontrolled parking. Consideration should also be given to encouraging visitors to the countryside to use public transport or environmentally friendly means of transport such as bicycles. A shift away from the use of private cars may be brought about by introducing 'bus services to areas of interest or by considering sympathetically proposals for bicycle hire facilities in appropriate locations. Community Plan Objective T6 seeks to increase access to the SW coastal path through public transport.

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Summary of POLICIES and PROPOSALS

TOPIC LOCAL PLAN POLICIES/PROPOSALS STRUCTURE PLAN POLICIES 1997 (2004)
Transport proposals TP-1  
Transport services    
Public transport facilities TP-2 (TP-1, GD-1, GD-2) SP 2, TRAN 1 (Policies 1 & 27)
'Bus TP-A, TP-B  
Rail TP-3 TRAN 2, TRAN 4
Air TP-1 TRAN 3 (Policies 27 & 28)
Sea transport    
General TP-4 MAR 1, MAR 2, MAR 4 to 6, (Policy 4), TRAN 4
Penzance Harbour TP-4 (TV-6, TV-14, TV-24, TV-B) MAR 4 to 6, TRAN 4 (Policies 21 & 27)
Hayle Harbour TP-4 (TV-D) MAR 4 to 6, TRAN 4
Newlyn Harbour TP-4 (TV-6, E-9) MAR 4 to 6, TRAN 4
Cyclists TP-5 (GD-2) TRAN 5 (Policies 27 & 28)
Pedestrians TP-6, TP-7 (GD-2) TRAN 5 (Policies 27 & 28)
Main road network   TRAN 7 to 9, TRAN A (Policy 27)
Non-strategic roads TP-8 (GD-3, GD-5, CC-12) TRAN 9 (Policy 27)
Roadside facilities TP-9 (GD-3, TM-3) TRAN 10
Freight transport   TRAN 2, TRAN 4
Transhipment TP-10 (GD-3) TRAN 4 (Policy 28)
Rear servicing TP-11 (TV-1, TV-6, TV-14, TV-A, TV-22)  
Parking    
General TP-12, TP-13 (R-6) TRAN 6 (Policy 28)
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