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You are here: Penwith on the Web/Living in Penwith/Sustainable Development and Improvement (Planning and Building Control)/Local Plan
Penwith District Local Plan
Adopted 2004
9 EMPLOYMENT
This Chapter in PDF format (255Kbs)
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INTRODUCTION
POLICY BACKGROUND
POLICIES AND PROPOSALS
Sustainable Approach
POLICY E-1
Spatial Strategy
POLICY E-2
The Rural Economy
POLICY E-3
POLICY E-4
Agriculture
POLICY E-5
POLICY E-6
Development Essential to Agriculture and the Rural Economy
POLICY E-7
Fishing
POLICY E-8
POLICY E-9
Mining and Quarrying
Tourism
Retailing and Other Services
Transportation and Infrastructure
Manufacturing and Service Industries
Higher Education, Information Technology and Creative Industries
Provision of Serviced Industrial Land
Location of Land for Industry
PROPOSAL E-A
PROPOSAL E-B
PROPOSAL E-C
PROPOSAL E-D
Retention of Existing Industrial Sites and Premises
POLICY E-10
PROPOSAL E-E
PROPOSAL E-F
PROPOSAL E-G
PROPOSAL E-H
PROPOSAL E-I
PROPOSAL E-J
PROPOSAL E-K
Design, Layout and Control over Development
POLICY E-11
Table 2: Supply of Land for Industrial and Business Uses, Penwith Local Plan (April 2003)
Summary of POLICIES and PROPOSALS
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Local Plan Menu
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1 Introduction
2 The Local Plan Area
3 Plan Strategy
4 Objectives
5 General Development Guidance
6 Coast and Countryside
7 Towns and Villages
8 Housing
9 Employment
10 Tourism
11 Recreation
12 Transportation
13 Community Services
14 Environmental Appraisal
15 Monitoring and Review
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Proposals Map
Inset Map
Glossary
Plan Help
Terms and Conditions
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9. EMPLOYMENT
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9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.1.1 The creation of more and better paid job opportunities is given high priority in the Local Plan both to alleviate existing levels of unemployment and accommodate the estimated increase in the workforce during the period to 2011. However, the Government makes it clear that economic growth and a high quality environment have to be pursued together and one of its key aims is to encourage continued economic development in a way which is compatible with its stated environmental objectives.

9.1.2 The disadvantages of the area's economy have been reflected by various designations which attract financial assistance from both the UK Government and the European Commission. Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly qualifies for assistance through the European 'Objective One' designation. The Objective One Structural Fund is targeted at areas where prosperity as measured by GDP per capita, is 75% or less than the European average. In July 1999, Cornwall and Isles of Scilly were designated as an Objective One area under the new structural fund regulations. This covers the period of 2000 – 2006 and in total a figure of around £314 million will be available to achieve economic, physical and social regeneration.

9.1.3 The District Council has a specific power, through the Local Government and Housing Act, 1989, to promote the economic development of its area and has adopted policies in support of a range of initiatives. An Economic Development Statement is produced to identify the measures the Council intends to pursue in promoting the economy of the District. The Council provides an information service on site availability for developers and local businesses and has an important co-ordinating role with other agencies in encouraging economic development. As the Local Planning Authority the District Council is responsible, through the Local Plan process and in determining planning applications, for the identification and assessment of sites and opportunities for employment growth.

9.1.4 Penwith's location at the far end of a long narrow county, which is itself at the far end of the South West Region of England, has made it difficult to attract or sustain new industries. The high level of unemployment has been a serious problem in Cornwall and levels in Penwith are consistently even higher. In April 1991 unemployment rates in Penwith were 16.6% (Penzance and St. Ives Travel to Work Area). While this figure had reduced to 4.2% by 2001 (Census 2001). Penzance was still higher than that for Cornwall and above the UK average of 3.4%. There is also a marked seasonality in unemployment levels with a difference of over 3% between January and July rates in 2001.

9.1.5 Employment in the District is concentrated in the provision of services. Since 1981 employment in the service sector has increased, whilst manufacturing, fishing and construction have continued to decline. The service industry provides about 19% of employed positions in the Penwith District based on the 2001 Census. This compares with 8.3% in manufacturing industries, 5.4% in agriculture, forestry and fishing and 8.6% in construction, mining, energy and water supply.

9.1.6 The local economy is also characterised by low average earnings. When compared with other counties in Great Britain, Cornwall consistently comes near or at the bottom in terms of average gross weekly earnings. The 2000 average gross weekly earnings for men were 25% below the British average and female earnings were 16% below the national average. The gap between local and national rates for men has tended to widen in recent years but there has been some improvement for women. The average weekly earnings for all workers in Cornwall excluding overtime were £334.20 compared with £444.30 in England (New Earnings Survey, 2001). Office for National Statistics (ONS) estimates for Local Authority districts in 2002 place Penwith at a lower earnings level than other districts in Cornwall.

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9.2 POLICY BACKGROUND

9.2.1 Planning Policy Guidance "Industrial and Commercial Development and Small Firms" (PPG 4) and PPG 7 “The Countryside – Environmental Quality and Economic and Social Development” (PPS 7 'Sustainable Development in Rural Areas' has been published for consultation) are the most obvious sources of planning policy advice from Central Government on employment issues but guidance on a range of matters including town centres, retailing and tourism is also relevant. PPG 12 "Development Plans" (and emerging PPS12 ''Local Development Frameworks'') sets the scene on the content of plans; local plans are required to be in general conformity with polices in structure plans relating to industrial, business, retail and other employment generating development. In particular, PPG 12 makes it clear that the Government intends that development and growth should be sustainable and will continue to develop policies which are consistent with this principle.

9.2.2 In PPG 4 ''Industrial, Commercial Development and Small Firms'' increased emphasis is placed on the need for development plans to take account of both the locational demands of business and wider environmental objectives and provides guidance on a range of issues. These include the location of new development so as to avoid additional congestion and reduce the length and number of trips, especially by private vehicles, the approach to a mixture of uses in rural and residential areas, the re-use of vacant land in urban areas and the provision, by developers, of factories or other premises suitable for use by small firms.

9.2.3 PPG 7 “The Countryside – Environmental Quality and Economic and Social Development” carries forward the Government's policies for the countryside which are set out in the White Paper "Rural England: A Nation Committed to a Living Countryside". The White paper stated six principles for the future of the countryside:

  • the pursuit of sustainable development;
  • shared responsibility for the countryside as a national asset, which serves people who live and work there as well as visitors;
  • dialogue to help reconcile competing priorities;
  • distinctiveness, approaching rural polices in a way which is flexible and responds to the character of the countryside;
  • economic and social diversity and
  • sound information as the basis for effective polices.

Development plans are seen as the means by which development to sustain economic activity in rural areas can be promoted while protecting the countryside. Economic development issues covered by the guidance include land use change and diversification, the protection of the best agricultural land and agricultural development, rural businesses, tourism, sport and recreation and the re-use and adaptation of rural buildings. Both PPG 4 and PPG 7 include advice on Environmental Assessment. The emerging Planning Policy
Statement number 7 ''Sustainable Development in Rural Areas'' reflects the Government's objectives for rural areas including:

  • to raise the quality of life and the environment in rural areas;
  • to promote more sustainable patterns of development;
  • promoting the development of the English regions by improving their economic performance so that all are able to reach their full potential;
  • to promote sustainable, diverse and adaptable agriculture sectors.

9.2.4 The Regional Planning Guidance (RPG 10) identifies that there is a need to encourage new business and enterprise throughout the area in order to revitalise and diversify the region's economy and that plans should ensure that sufficient provision is made for land for employment related development, in terms of both quantity and quality. Emphasis is placed on the distribution of economic development in the major urban areas of the region but also on the need for plans to recognise the potential of small towns to provide employment for their own population and for surrounding rural areas. Other matters referred to include employment development of an appropriate scale, and which meets local needs, in rural areas, farm diversification and the relevance of transport policies in considering the location of development.

9.2.5 The Structure Plan carries forward policies on the issues identified above. In particular there are policies on the provision of new industrial land in each District, the location of land for industry, the retention of industrial sites and buildings for industrial purposes, provision for light industry and offices in urban areas, accommodation for employment uses including the re-use of existing buildings in rural areas, industrial development essential to agriculture or the rural economy, higher education and associated science park development, the use of waterside sites for maritime industries and development related to the fishing industry. The emerging Structure Plan, due for publication later this year, also details that a range and choice of marketable and quality sites for employment should be made available based on assessments of likely demand from existing and new firms. (Policy 12, 2004)

9.2.6 The District Council's aims are:

  • to support existing businesses and industries in all sectors and to encourage their growth;
  • to encourage developments which provide wider and better paid job opportunities;
  • to carefully relate the scale and type of development to the environment and character of the District;
  • to attract investment to the area: and
  • to increase the level of prosperity through partnership with those in the private and other public sectors.

Existing businesses include those in agriculture, fishing, manufacturing, retailing, other services and tourism and these aims are relevant to all aspects of the economy. Considerable emphasis is placed on the Council working together with a wide range of organisations in developing the local economy. These include the European Commission (EC), Government Departments, the South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWERDA), the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), Cornwall Enterprise, the County Council and local bodies such as the West Cornwall Enterprise Trust, Parish and Town Councils and Chambers of Commerce. Through partnership, particularly with SWERDA, and the assistance of both national and European grants, new industrial sites have been acquired and serviced and workspace provided.

9.2.7 In addition to the Council's own statement for the Penwith area the Authority is involved, with other agencies, in the formulation of strategies for wider based areas and for the implementation of specific development programmes. The Council, mainly through its Regeneration, Tourism and Leisure Service, seeks to focus attention on the opportunities and potential of the area, for example, through the preparation and adoption of a strategy for the Creative Industries sector, and through the encouragement of IT based businesses which are not disadvantaged by the distance from major commercial centres. The Community Plan, Penwith 'A Vision for the Future' (2003) supports the need to strengthen the local economy. Objective E2 looks to improve the capacity of local business in Penwith and Objective E5 aims to increase the number of local jobs. The Council's Economic Development Statement reflects and complements these documents and others in seeking a co-ordinated approach to the promotion of economic development in Penwith.

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9.3 POLICIES AND PROPOSALS

Sustainable Approach

9.3.1 The special character of Penwith, in terms of its environment and its location, presents both opportunities and constraints for economic development. In many respects the generation of growth in the local economy rests on changing the image of the District as purely a beautiful place to live or visit on holiday and the perception that inaccessibility is a problem. These factors clearly have economic advantages, in terms of tourism marketing for example, but it must also be demonstrated that there are opportunities for economic development which are compatible with the protection of the District's landscape, heritage, wildlife and culture as well as the environment in the broadest terms. This can be achieved but needs a clear recognition of the need for development to make a sustainable contribution to the local economy and to provide genuine and better paid employment opportunities of a scale which is appropriate to the District. Emphasis is also required on the use and retention of suitable sites and buildings for employment generating uses, rather than for additional housing development which does not meet need in the area. In terms of 'peripherality', improvement of air, road and rail journey times, and a revolution in the development of telecommunications, allow for a different view to be taken in many areas of business towards communications at local, UK and international levels.

9.3.2 This section seeks to facilitate employment initiatives that will strengthen and broaden the local economy, while at the same time meet environmental objectives relating to the protection of the character and special values of Penwith. Policies and proposals relate industrial land provision closely to the estimated level of job creation requiring new sites and carry forward those objectives that relate to the efficient use of land and existing buildings, reduction in the need to travel and reliance on use of the private car, maximising service provision and maintaining and improving the role of towns and villages as centres of commercial activity. The aim of this approach is to meet social and economic, as well as environmental, requirements.

9.3.3 The planning system plays an important role in integrating environmental and economic objectives and planning authorities have to ensure that development plans contain clear land use policies for different types of industrial and commercial development as well as positive policies to provide for the needs of small businesses. They should aim to ensure that there is sufficient land available which is capable of development and ensure the area is well served by infrastructure with a variety of sites available to meet differing needs. It is also important to retain suitable industrial premises for that use and to utilise previously developed sites where practicable.

9.3.4 The extent to which planning policies can address specific local employment issues must be fully considered but in some respects is limited. For example, the issue of low average earnings cannot be specifically addressed except by a policy approach which will generally encourage the development of a broader based economy with a wide range of training and employment opportunities. Planning policy can, however, influence the provision of additional employment when the economic 'climate' is right, for example by allowing for the expansion of existing firms and the start up and relocation of new businesses. The availability of suitable sites or premises is a key element in encouraging such development.

9.3.5 The Structure Plan's underlying objective is to achieve sustainable development (Policy SP 1, 1997 & Policy 1, 2004) and it emphasises that regard should be paid to the economic and social well-being of local communities as well as the environmental implications of development. The Plan's approach to policies for urban and rural employment, industry and commerce is based on a reduction in the January 1991 level of unemployment in Cornwall, close to 20,000 people, and the forecast increase in the economically active population. Within Penwith a total requirement of 3,550 new jobs, between 1991 and 2011 is identified. However, the Plan identifies that, as in the past, job growth is not likely to keep pace with increases in the economically active population, let alone make substantial inroads into underlying unemployment. It is anticipated that most of the increase in jobs will be provided within the service sector in wholesale, retail, banking and business services, professional services and health and education. Of the total job requirement in Penwith it is estimated that just over 2,000 jobs could be provided without requiring the provision of additional industrial land with new serviced sites being needed for 1,420 jobs.

9.3.6 The strategy in the Local Plan for employment related development can be summarised as follows:

  • to allow for development that can be well integrated with the scale and special character of the District and meet the requirements of the Cornwall Structure Plan;
  • to focus development on locations which are accessible to the majority of the District's population without undue reliance on the private car and
  • to place emphasis on retaining or providing sites which will enable local businesses to expand or new ones to become established.

POLICY E-1 follows from this strategy and provides the 'key' approach to industrial and business development by requiring that development should make a positive and sustainable contribution to the local economy. Matters to be taken into account in determining that a proposal would make such a contribution will include whether effective use is made of the site, in terms of the layout of development and employment likely to be generated on or off site, the provision of premises to cater for various types of business, for example in a range of sizes, and the effects of the development on the character and economy of the District.

9.3.7 POLICY E-1:

INDUSTRIAL AND OTHER BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT WILL BE PERMITTED WHERE IT WOULD MAKE A POSITIVE AND SUSTAINABLE CONTRIBUTION TO THE LOCAL ECONOMY IN TERMS OF :-

(i) GENERATION OF ADDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES OR AN IMPROVEMENT IN EFFICIENT OPERATION OF AN EXISTING LOCAL FIRM;

(ii) SAFEGUARDING NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE QUALITY OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT;

(iii) THE SCALE OF THE DEVELOPMENT BEING RELEVANT TO THE EMPLOYMENT NEEDS OF THE LOCALITY;

(iv) BEING ACCESSIBLE, WITHOUT UNDUE RELIANCE ON USE OF THE PRIVATE CAR, TO THE POTENTIAL WORKFORCE AND

(v) MAKING EFFICIENT USE OF LAND AND BUILDINGS. THE MAJOR EMPLOYMENT NEEDS OF THE DISTRICT SHOULD BE MET BY AVAILABLE INDUSTRIAL LAND AND THE SITES PROPOSED IN THE LOCAL PLAN.

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Spatial Strategy

9.3.8 Employment opportunities are centred on the towns of Penzance, Newlyn, St. Ives and Hayle where the majority of the population live, where services are provided and where road, rail and sea links are available. The Structure Plan emphasises that industrial, commercial or business development should be located mainly within or well integrated with the existing built up areas and should minimise the need to travel and encourage access by alternative means to the private car. It is identified that travel demand should be reduced by making full and effective use of land in urban areas, locating major trip generators in areas well served by transport and giving priority to redevelopment sites in the vicinity of major public transport nodes. Other locational considerations referred to include the need to minimise adverse impact on the landscape, agricultural, nature conservation or historic values, the use of derelict or previously developed sites and take account of accessibility to the primary route network and working ports or railway sidings. (Policies SP2 and E2, 1997 & Policies 1, 2, 3 & 12, 2004). The approach to employment generation will continue to focus on the urban centres which are easily accessible to services, customers and the local workforce and meet the need to reduce unnecessary travelling and reliance on the use of private transport. Vacant land and existing premises, especially in urban areas, represent a valuable resource which should be utilised for industrial or other business uses subject to appropriate safeguards (POLICY E-2, para. 9.3.13 and POLICY E-10 para. 9.3.72). In rural areas, smaller scale development appropriate to the social, economic and environmental needs of the location will be important in supporting the rural economy and will be focused on St Just and the principal villages. The re-use of existing buildings in the countryside will also be given full consideration.

9.3.9 In addition to the focus of commercial activity on the town centres there are serviced industrial estates on the edge of all the main towns which accommodate a range of manufacturing and service sector businesses including the local distribution of goods. These sites have an important role to play, both in providing employment opportunities close to the biggest population centres and in avoiding traffic congestion and conflict between uses within the towns. The retention of existing industrial land for industrial uses is extremely important in maintaining a supply of sites without adding to the requirement for new land (POLICY E-10, para. 9.3.70). However, as identified in the Plan Strategy there are no opportunities to provide suitable additional serviced industrial land within the urban areas. St Ives and Newlyn are densely developed. The industrial estates serving Penzance are already located outside the towns on sites adjacent to the main approach road as a result of a lack of suitable sites within the built up area. In Hayle derelict industrial areas in the harbour area are proposed for redevelopment but it is considered essential that, while the existing level of industrial and storage facilities should be retained, and business opportunities improved a mixture of uses, including residential, be allowed for in order to encourage regeneration (PROPOSAL TV-D, para. 7.3.119)

9.3.10 It is important to consider whether derelict or other previously developed land could be used for the provision of additional serviced land. However, while there is a considerable amount of derelict land recorded in the District most of it is naturally regenerating and has not been identified as justifying reclamation, other than mineshaft capping. In addition it is not generally located close to the main centres or necessary service networks which would result in high cost of servicing and, in most cases, reliance on the private car and intrusion in the landscape. Available previously developed sites, with the exception of Hayle harbour which has already been referred to, are unsuitable for industrial estate development because of their size and location. It should also be recognised that where sites are equally suitable for housing, the difficulties of bringing forward industrial development would be exacerbated by site costs.

9.3.11 Ideally sites should be provided, if not within, on the edges of the main towns, particularly Penzance. However, Penzance, Newlyn, St. Ives and Hayle are all significantly constrained by land of high agricultural and landscape quality. It is recognised in the Structure Plan that the environmental assets and resources of Penwith perhaps influence development patterns more than in any other district in Cornwall and that there are particular difficulties in finding environmentally acceptable industrial sites close to Penzance. The implications of developing additional serviced land on the edges of towns must be balanced, therefore, against alternative locations which offer similar or improved, accessibility benefits. POLICY ST-1 (para. 3.3.) identifies the St Erth Station area as being a location for the provision of serviced industrial land.

9.3.12 The General Development Guidance policies, in Section 5, set out the requirements to be met by all kinds of development. In particular POLICY GD-1 (para. 5.3.3.) requires development to be integrated with its surroundings and its scale, siting and design to be in keeping with the character of the District, while POLICIES GD-2, GD-3, GD-4 and GD-5 (paras. 5.3.7, 5.3.9, 5.3.11 and 5.3.13) relate to design and layout, landscaping, access and parking, the provision of essential services and safeguards to prevent noise, light, air and water pollution. The effect of a proposal on the character of the area, especially in Conservation Areas, and compatibility with surrounding uses, particularly in residential areas, will be important considerations. Where proposals involve previously developed sites the requirements of POLICY TV-15 (para. 7.3.42) must be considered.

9.3.13 POLICY E-2:

PROPOSALS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, AS DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USE CLASSES) ORDER, 1987 (AS AMENDED), WILL BE PERMITTED IN OR ON THE EDGE OF THE TOWNS OF PENZANCE (Link to Map 1), NEWLYN (Link to Map 8), ST. IVES (Link to Map 15 and Link to Map 16), HAYLE (Link to Map 17 and Link to Map 18) AND ST. JUST (Link to Map 4).

IN ALL CASES THE PROPOSAL MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH SURROUNDING USES AND THE CHARACTER OF THE AREA.

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Use of Vacant Land and Premises in Towns

9.3.14 The continued use of existing industrial sites and premises in urban areas is an important consideration, particularly in relation to avoiding unnecessary development on 'greenfield' sites on the edge of towns, and is provided for by POLICY E-10 (para. 9.3.70). The conversion of existing buildings for industrial and business uses is also important and POLICY E-4 (para. 9.3.25) relates to this issue. Wherever possible, encouragement will be given to bringing vacant industrial sites and premises within towns back into industrial or business uses. Such development can contribute to town centre regeneration as well as to the enhancement of Conservation Areas and the townscape generally, providing both an economic and environmental benefit. In turn, funding for environmental initiatives may assist in bringing sites into use. PPG 4 places emphasis on the re-use of urban land and the identification of alternative uses, including industrial and commercial, in development plans.

9.3.15 The redevelopment of vacant and derelict sites in the town centre and harbour areas of Penzance and Hayle has been referred to in paragraph 9.3.9. In Hayle, PROPOSAL TV-D (para. 7.3.119) supports a mixture of uses in the South Quay, North Quay and East Quay areas, including port facilities, industrial and commercial as well as housing. The proposal specifically requires that provision is made for maintaining the existing level of industrial and storage facilities. In addition to these specific sites, other opportunities for the re-use of vacant sites and premises within the towns will be encouraged wherever practicable.

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The Rural Economy

9.3.16 While development in the main towns, or on serviced industrial estates, will provide the majority of opportunities for employment, appropriate development in rural areas can also make an important contribution to the economy of the District. With employment in agriculture and other traditional rural activities continuing to decline there is a need to consider ways of strengthening and diversifying the rural economy. In line with relevant strategies there is a need for environmentally sustainable development, partnership and co-operative action, maintaining the distinctiveness of Cornwall, in terms of its culture and a thriving countryside, strengthening rural communities and locally based regeneration. Maximum benefit is sought from projects in terms of social, economic and environmental considerations. The development of technology in computing and telecommunications provides new opportunities which can be equally relevant to the rural areas as to businesses in towns, through working from home or in 'telecottages' which are centres where specialist facilities are provided for the shared use of small businesses and individuals. As well as providing the facilities, a telecentre can provide employment for those providing a service, such as word processing for example. Opportunities arising from new technology should be considered as well as indigenous or other locally based activities. While working from home is not likely to require planning permission, unless the scale of the activity is such that it changes the character of the dwelling, the development of telecentres can be encouraged through the construction or conversion of appropriate buildings as accepted by the polices for development outside, or in, towns and villages.

Development in Villages

9.3.17 It is identified in PPG 7 (PPS 7 'Sustainable Development in Rural Areas' is currently in consultation and will supersede PPG7) that the main focus of new development should be on existing towns and villages and other areas allocated in development plans, in order to promote sustainable development, and that plans should encourage employment opportunities suitable in scale to rural centres and also address the employment needs of the locality. The Structure Plan also emphasises, through Policy E 9 (Policy 12 & 26, 2004), that in rural areas accommodation for employment uses should be well integrated with a village or be provided by the re-use of appropriate existing buildings. The policy also requires that the scale of development is appropriate to the character and employment needs of the locality. Other considerations are the availability of public transport and the need to discourage commuting from outside the area. It is important that decisions on development in rural areas should, wherever possible, give the greatest amount of people the opportunity to access facilities by public transport, cycling or walking. These considerations are important in Penwith where travelling to the main towns from the rural areas may be easier, and serve more than one purpose, than travelling to villages within the rural areas.

9.3.18 The suitability of villages in Penwith for industrial or business development should be related to their suitability for residential development and take account of employment needs. As a result, it is considered that only those villages with a range of facilities, including good public transport links to the main towns, or which provide other services to a locality away from the towns, are suitable for developments of more than one business unit on a particular site; relevant villages are listed in POLICY H-5 (para. 8.3.52). In other villages, listed in POLICY H-6 (para. 8.3.53), smaller scale development could be acceptable while in order to protect the special character and setting of the villages listed in POLICY H-7 (para. 8.3.54) industrial uses will only be acceptable where they can be accommodated by the conversion of suitable buildings. In all the villages listed, the re-use of existing buildings can provide industrial and business premises of a scale suitable to the village and is allowed for through POLICY E-4 (para 9.3.25). Where the construction of a new building is acceptable in principle, the development should be of a scale that is suitable for a village location taking into account the employment needs of the locality, the need to discourage travel from outside the area and accessibility to public transport. Larger scale development is only allowed for where it is essential to the needs of agriculture, forestry or associated industries (POLICY E-7, para. 9.3.35). The inclusion of a village in a policy accepting the development of industrial units does not imply that suitable sites will become available or that all proposals will be acceptable. The relevant requirements of the General Development Guidance policies (Section 5) and those in the Towns and Villages section (Section 7) must be met in every case, particularly in relation to scale and siting, access, landscaping, the avoidance of pollution and protection of the character and setting of the village.

9.3.19 POLICY E-3:

PROPOSALS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, AS DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USE CLASSES) ORDER, 1987 (AS AMENDED), WILL BE PERMITTED IN OR ON THE EDGE OF THE VILLAGES LISTED IN POLICIES H-5 AND H-6 PROVIDED THAT, WHERE THE PROPOSAL IS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW BUILDING, IT IS OF A SCALE SUITABLE TO THE LOCALITY.

NEW UNITS THAT ARE GREATER IN FLOORSPACE WILL BE PERMITTED PROVIDED THAT THEY ARE ESSENTIAL TO AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY OR ASSOCIATED INDUSTRIES AND THE OPERATIONAL NEEDS OF THE DEVELOPMENT REQUIRE SUCH A LOCATION.

PROPOSALS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF MORE THAN ONE UNIT ON A SITE WILL ONLY BE PERMITTED IN THE VILLAGES LISTED IN POLICY H-5.

IN THE VILLAGES LISTED IN POLICY H-7 SUCH DEVELOPMENT WILL NOT BE PERMITTED UNLESS IT CAN BE ACCOMMODATED BY THE CONVERSION OF SUITABLE EXISTING BUILDINGS.

IN ALL CASES THE PROPOSAL MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH SURROUNDING USES AND THE CHARACTER OF THE AREA.

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Development Outside Towns and Villages

9.3.20 Outside the towns and villages identified in POLICIES H-5, H-6 and H-7 development will generally be limited to that which has an essential reason for such a location. Development related to agriculture is considered in paragraphs 9.3.26 to 9.3.35 while proposals for recreation or tourism related projects in the countryside fall within the scope of policies in the Recreation and Tourism sections of the Plan (Section 10 and Section 11). The conversion and re-use of existing buildings outside towns and villages is considered in the following paragraphs and POLICY E-4 (para. 9.3.25).

Re-Use of Existing Buildings

9.3.21 The importance of re-using existing buildings in towns has been identified (para. 9.3.14) and, as emphasised in PPG 7 (and emerging PPS 7), the re-use and adaptation of existing rural buildings also have an important role to play in meeting the need for business and industrial development as well as for tourism and recreation. While the use of existing buildings in towns and villages is in line with the overall approach to the location of industrial and business development, PPG 7 identifies a number of criteria to be met in assessing the suitability of rural buildings, including modern buildings, for re-use which relate to their form and construction, the environmental or other effects of the use proposed and any impact on town or village vitality resulting from a dispersal of economic activity.

9.3.22 Subject to the provisions of POLICY E-10 (para. 9.3.72), which seeks to retain the stock of employment premises in the locality, existing buildings in towns and villages may be equally suitable for a range of new uses, including residential and tourism related. However, PPG 7 advises that local planning authorities should consider the needs of their areas for business and residential conversions and, especially where the creation of local employment is a priority, may include policies in development plans that do not allow residential re-use of buildings in rural areas unless reasonable attempts to secure business re-use have been made or the residential use is a sub-ordinate part of a scheme for business use. This emphasis on employment uses rather than on residential is carried forward in Structure Plan Policy ENV11 (Policy 26, 2004) and in POLICY H-11 in the Local Plan (para. 8.3.66).

9.3.23 A number of factors will need to be taken into account in assessing the suitability of buildings outside towns and villages for employment related use. For development to be sustainable it should be closely related to the rural economy, for example farm diversification or activities related to other rural industries. Businesses should preferably provide jobs or services for people already living or working in the locality rather than attracting activity away from urban or village centres. If the re-use of a building is associated with farm diversification a planning obligation may be sought to tie the building to the land to discourage subsequent fragmentation of the agricultural unit. The location of the site in relation to nearby communities, access to public transport and the capacity of approach roads will also be relevant in terms of traffic and trip generation. In more remote locations, conversion to holiday accommodation may be a more appropriate employment related use (POLICY TM-12, para. 10.3.49).

9.3.24 All proposals that are acceptable in principle must meet the requirements of the General Development Guidance policies in Section 5, in particular POLICY GD-7 (para. 5.3.20) which relates specifically to the suitability of proposals for conversion and the effect of a change of use on the building and its surroundings. The wider effect of the proposal on the landscape, including alterations to provide safe access, must be considered and in line with POLICY GD-5 (para. 5.3.13) the type of traffic likely to be generated must be accommodated safely without the need for access alterations that would have a significant adverse effect on the character or amenity of the area. Where proposals are acceptable in principle within the AONB the requirements of POLICY CC-3 (para. 6.3.13) must be met and in Conservation Areas the relevant policies in the Towns and Villages section (Section 7) will apply. In order to limit trip generation and the impact of traffic on rural roads, storage and distribution uses (Class B8 in the Town and Country Planning Use Classes Order) will not be acceptable outside towns and villages unless the building is easily accessible from the main road network.

9.3.25 POLICY E-4:

THE CONVERSION OF EXISTING BUILDINGS FOR THE INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS USES DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USE CLASSES) ORDER 1987 (AS AMENDED) WILL BE PERMITTED WITHIN TOWNS AND THE VILLAGES LISTED IN POLICIES H-5, H-6 AND H-7 PROVIDED THAT THE PROPOSAL DOES NOT HAVE AN ADVERSE IMPACT ON THE CHARACTER OF THE BUILDING OR ITS SURROUNDINGS.

OUTSIDE TOWNS AND THE VILLAGES REFERRED TO ABOVE SUCH DEVELOPMENT WILL ONLY BE ACCEPTABLE WHERE THE BUILDING IS OF A FORM, BULK AND GENERAL DESIGN WHICH IS IN KEEPING WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS AND, WHERE USES IN CLASS B8 ARE PROPOSED, IT IS EASILY ACCESSIBLE FROM THE PRIMARY AND COUNTY ROUTE NETWORK.

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Agriculture

9.3.26 Although employment in agriculture is declining and there are many pressures facing the industry it remains an important part of the economy within the District. While support for primary agriculture remains a key theme, financial support for increasing or maintaining production is falling in response to surpluses in some agricultural commodities and assistance is being directed at alternative objectives, particularly those related to the protection of the environment. For example, the Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) designation is intended to encourage farmers to continue, or re-employ, traditional farming methods and other sources of support are shifting towards an agri-environmental basis. The ESA is considered in more detail in the Coast and Countryside section (para. 6.3.28) together with other sources of assistance and issues resulting from the impact of farming in the landscape.

Protection of Agricultural Land

9.3.27 The District contains land of significantly high agricultural quality, much of which borders Penzance, Newlyn, Hayle, St. Ives and a number of the major villages. As a result conflict often arises between development pressures and the need to protect agricultural land as a non-renewable resource. Policy E 7 in the Structure Plan seeks to safeguard the efficiency of farming from development while Policy ENV 8 offers a considerable degree of protection to the best and most versatile agricultural land (Policy 3 & 11, 2004). While both the UK Government and the EC have taken substantial measures to restrict over production, including the 'set aside' of land, the need to protect the best and most versatile land as a natural resource for future generations, remains and is embodied in PPG 7 (emerging PPS 7) and other planning policy guidance. The importance of this resource is also recognised in the objectives and policies of the Local Plan.

9.3.28 The extent of the highest grades of land in Penwith, and their location close to the main centres of population, requires the inclusion of a policy in the Local Plan to identify the circumstances in which the use of such land could be accepted. Initially the importance of the development and the availability of alternative sites must be considered, this process should include development opportunities in built up areas and land in lower agricultural grades if it exists and land that is not of environmental value recognised by statutory designation. In addition, advice in PPG 7 states that, once agricultural land is developed, even for 'soft' uses such as golf courses, its return to best quality agricultural use is seldom practicable. Land graded 1, 2 and 3a is defined as the best and most versatile in PPG 7 (and emerging PPS 7) and it is to such land that the policy relates.

9.3.29 POLICY E-5:

DEVELOPMENT WHICH WOULD RESULT IN THE IRREVERSIBLE LOSS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND GRADED 1, 2 AND 3A IN THE DEPARTMENT FOR ENVIRONMENT, FOOD AND RURAL AFFAIRS CLASSIFICATION WILL NOT BE PERMITTED UNLESS THERE IS NO PRACTICABLE ALTERNATIVE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OUTWEIGHS THE NEED TO PROTECT THE BEST AND MOST VERSATILE LAND.

IF AGRICULTURAL LAND NEEDS TO BE DEVELOPED, AND THERE IS A CHOICE BETWEEN SITES IN DIFFERENT GRADES (AGRICULTURAL LAND CLASSIFICATION GRADES 1-5), LAND OF THE LOWEST GRADE AVAILABLE SHOULD BE USED UNLESS OTHER SUSTAINABLE CONSIDERATIONS OUTWEIGH THE AGRICULTURAL LAND QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS.

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Farm Diversification

9.3.30 Diversification into farming related and other activities can be an important element in improving the viability of individual farms and achieving a wider rural economic base. Policies in the Local Plan accept a range of development which can contribute to farm diversification. The conversion of existing buildings for small scale industrial uses in rural areas, is considered in paragraphs 9.3.21 to 9.3.25. The provision of holiday accommodation, including camping barns, the development of tourism or recreational facilities, including equestrian establishments, and the provision of stable accommodation are referred to in the Tourism and Recreation sections (Section 10 and Section 11). In addition the development of renewable energy sources could provide commercial opportunities in parts of the District (POLICIES CS-8 and CS-9, paras. 13.3.43 and 13.3.45). These include coppice woodland and other energy crops which are potential sources of 'biomass fuel' and could be relevant to both agricultural diversification, and 'set aside', considerations.

9.3.31 Agricultural and forestry permitted development rights allow for farming and forestry needs to be met but not for farm diversification projects and PPG 7 (and emerging PPS 7) emphasises that they should not be used to circumvent normal planning polices relating to development in the countryside. Policy E 8 in the Structure Plan seeks to relate the scale and nature of farm diversification schemes to the rural areas, utilising existing buildings and avoiding harmful effects on the countryside or the farm business. In order to make an ongoing contribution to the viability of individual farms and retain control over the scale of development diversification activities should remain ancillary to, and part of, the farm business rather than becoming a separate commercial enterprise that might be in conflict both with the running of the farm and with locational planning policies. Proposals will not be acceptable where they are in major conflict with other policies in the plan. However, there may be scope for development which would not generally be permitted outside towns and villages but could be appropriate as part of an existing farm business. Conditions will be used, or a Planning Obligation under Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 sought, to ensure that it remains part of the farming unit. The impact of such development on the character of the countryside will be reduced if existing farm buildings are re-used but, where new buildings are necessary, they should be closely integrated with those existing.

9.3.32 POLICY E-6:

PROPOSALS FOR FARM DIVERSIFICATION PROJECTS, OTHER THAN THOSE PERMITTED BY THE POLICIES RELATING TO EMPLOYMENT, TOURISM, RECREATION AND COMMUNITY SERVICES, WILL BE PERMITTED WHERE:-

(i) THEY WILL MAKE A CONTINUING CONTRIBUTION TO THE ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF AN EXISTING FARM UNIT AND

(ii) THEY ARE BASED IN THE FARM COMPLEX AND, WHERE PRACTICABLE, UTILISE EXISTING SUITABLE BUILDINGS.

PLANNING PERMISSION WILL NOT BE GRANTED UNLESS OPERATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT AS PART OF THE FARM BUSINESS IS SECURED THROUGH THE USE OF CONDITIONS OR A PLANNING OBLIGATION.

Note: The farm complex is considered to be the immediate boundary of the existing buildings.

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Development Essential to Agriculture and the Rural Economy

9.3.33 The Cornish economy has suffered from a lack of local value adding processes with raw materials being processed elsewhere before final consumption. This applies particularly to locally grown products and the potential for adding value has been identified and specific projects supported. Provision for such development can normally be made through other polices in this section relating to industrial and business development. However, there may be circumstances where packing and processing activities will need to be located close to the point of production and a town, village or industrial estate location may not be practicable.

9.3.34 The Structure Plan allows for industrial or commercial development in the countryside where it is essential to agriculture or the rural economy, there are no significant adverse effects on landscape, nature conservation, historic or agricultural values and there are functional reasons for the location (Policy E 10, 1997 & Policy 11, 2004). The Local Plan approach seeks to provide for development essential to agriculture, forestry or associated industries in or on the edge of villages, as accepted by POLICY E-3 (para. 9.3.19), however, where a location outside a town or village is required by the development its impact on the countryside, and in terms of trip generation, should be minimised. Policies in the General Development Guidance, Coast and Countryside and Towns and Villages sections (Section 5, Section 6 and Section 7) will also be relevant in this respect, depending on the precise location of the proposal. In the western part of the District in particular, the impact of any proposals on the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty will be an important consideration through POLICY CC-3 (para. 6.3.13).

9.3.35 POLICY E-7:

PROPOSALS FOR DEVELOPMENT WHICH IS ESSENTIAL TO AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY OR ASSOCIATED INDUSTRIES WILL BE PERMITTED IN OR ON THE EDGE OF VILLAGES, WHERE THE REQUIREMENTS OF POLICY E-3 ARE MET, OR OUTSIDE TOWNS OR VILLAGES, WHERE THE OPERATIONAL NEEDS OF THE DEVELOPMENT REQUIRE SUCH A LOCATION. OUTSIDE TOWNS AND THE VILLAGES LISTED IN POLICIES H-5 AND H-6 SUCH PROPOSALS MUST:-

(i) BE SITED, WHERE PRACTICABLE, IN OR ADJACENT TO AN EXISTING COMPLEX;

(ii) BE CAPABLE OF BEING EFFECTIVELY SCREENED BY LAND FORM, TREES AND PLANTING AND

(iii) WHERE THE DEVELOPMENT WOULD BE LIKELY TO ATTRACT EMPLOYEES FROM OUTSIDE THE IMMEDIATE LOCALITY, BE ON, OR WITHIN CONVENIENT WALKING DISTANCE OF, A PUBLIC TRANSPORT ROUTE PROVIDING ACCESS FOR WORK.

PLANNING PERMISSION WILL NOT BE GRANTED UNLESS THE NATURE OF THE ACTIVITY UNDERTAKEN IS LIMITED, THROUGH THE USE OF CONDITIONS OR A PLANNING OBLIGATION, TO THAT WHICH WOULD MEET THE NEEDS OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY OR ASSOCIATED INDUSTRIES.

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Fishing

9.3.36 Fishing remains an important part of the local economy and is centred on the harbour and market at Newlyn, with activity at a lower level in other harbours in the District including Hayle where there is an emphasis on shellfish. Other activities directly associated with the industry include packing, some processing, engineering services and supplies. Significant improvements have been carried out to the harbour, market and other facilities at Newlyn in recent years and it is considered important to give general support to further development sustaining the industry subject to appropriate safeguards in relation to noise, water or air pollution, the provision of essential services, including safe access, the character of harbours and their surroundings and the protection of the countryside. Structure Plan Policy MAR 5 (Policy 4, 2004) supports the provision of new facilities in fishing ports and seeks to prevent development unrelated to fishing prejudicing the ability of ports to accommodate the industry. The General Development Guidance polices in Section 5 encompass the issues referred to above and POLICIES TV-6 and TV-11 (paras. 7.3.19 and 7.3.30) are particularly relevant to proposals which would have an adverse effect on Conservation Areas.

9.3.37 POLICY E-8:

PROPOSALS FOR DEVELOPMENT DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE FISHING INDUSTRY WILL BE PERMITTED IN AREAS OF ESTABLISHED FISHING ACTIVITY.

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Sites in Newlyn Harbour Area (Link to Map 8)

9.3.38 Policy MAR 4 (Policy 4, 2004) in the Structure Plan seeks to protect waterside sites within the developed coast for activities requiring such a location with priority being given to maritime industries or, where sites are not suitable for such uses, to leisure activities. Policy MAR 6 (Policy 4, 2004) places emphasis on the particular needs of firms in the maritime sector. In Hayle policies in the Towns and Villages section (Section 7) encourage redevelopment of the harbour area; paragraph 7.3.109 draws attention to the fishing industry which is based mainly on South Quay and PROPOSAL TV - D (para. 7.3.119) requires that proposals make provision for improved port facilities which could benefit fishing as well as other harbour related activities. In Newlyn, major regeneration proposals are emerging through a partnership approach involving the Harbour Commissioners, County, District and Town Councils, SWERDA and local community groups and there is a strong emphasis on the fishing industry, improved harbour facilities and associated business and employment opportunities. The immediate operational hinterland is closely constrained by existing development and it is essential that industrial buildings or land within or adjacent to the harbour should be safeguarded for activities associated with its efficient functioning particularly in relation to fishing. Other uses, especially housing for which there is already a significant supply of land, will not be acceptable on such sites.

9.3.39 POLICY E-9:

IN NEWLYN (Link to Map 8) THE CHANGE OF USE OF INDUSTRIAL SITES IN THE HARBOUR AREA FOR DEVELOPMENT UNRELATED TO THE FISHING INDUSTRY WILL NOT BE PERMITTED WHERE THEY WOULD CONFLICT WITH MAINTENANCE OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY OR OTHER MARITIME ACTIVITIES.

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Mining and Quarrying

9.3.40 The County Council is the Minerals Planning Authority and the Structure Plan provides broad policy guidelines for mineral developments while detailed policies are contained in the Cornwall Minerals Local Plan, prepared by the County Council and adopted in 1998. Reserves of metalliferous minerals, china clay and hard rock will generally be safeguarded from development that would prejudice mineral working or associated operations. The main emphasis of policies in the Structure Plan is to enable a continuing supply of minerals while minimising adverse effects on the environment. Proposals within the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, in particular, will be subject to the most rigorous examination.

Use of Vacant Sites

9.3.41 There are sites in Penwith where mining or quarrying has taken place in the recent past but has now significantly reduced or ceased. When considering any new use for disused quarry or mine sites, full consideration must be shown for the current geological, ecological and heritage value of the site. Consultation and comprehensive site surveys should be undertaken before proposals proceed. Many sites are SSSIs or County Wildlife Sites and/or have valuable industrial archaeological interest and POLICIES CC-7, CC-8 and CC-16 (paras. 6.3.35, 6.3.43 and 6.3.81) will apply. Geevor Mine, at Pendeen has been developed as a mining related heritage centre (POLICY TM-11, para. 10.3.45) while the site of Penlee Quarry at Newlyn, including a waterside frontage, is currently not in use. The quarry represents an important element of Cornwall's aggregates landbank and is well situated for ship-born export. Alternative uses on this site or in close proximity could potentially conflict with the Cornwall Minerals Local Plan. However, while it must be emphasised that there is a continuing valid planning permission for mineral extraction on this site it is relevant to consider the development of alternative uses in both the short and long term. Significant work has already been carried out to remove derelict buildings and structures alongside the coast road at Penlee. Opportunities to improve the amenity of this coastal site, including the use of the Cornwall coastal path which follows the coast road, should also be pursued and the quarry's possible value in geological terms must be considered since it is a SSSI.

9.3.42 The Government's approach and the Council's strategy towards Land Reclamation are relevant to any proposals for former mining or quarrying sites and are referred to in paragraph 6.3.90 to 6.3.95. POLICY CC-18 (para. 6.3.95) provides support for reclamation schemes subject to certain requirements. In the case of the Penlee site it is considered that its potential for employment generation should be realised as far as possible. The greatest constraint on development of the site is the unsuitability of the approach road through Newlyn, or Mousehole, to cater for heavy lorries or a significant increase in traffic. It is, however, well suited to development which could use sea transport as an alternative. Industrial uses could therefore be accepted provided the traffic generated could be satisfactorily accommodated. The lower beach level may have some potential as a waterside site for industrial use requiring such a location, including those associated with the fishing industry. Policy MAR 4 (Policy 4, 2004) in the Structure Plan gives priority to the retention of waterside sites for maritime industries unless they are no longer suitable for such uses.

9.3.43 Development for leisure and commercial, recreational and tourism related uses could be considered subject to the requirements of POLICIES TV-16 and R-1 (paras. 7.3.47 and 11.3.4), which require that major facilities should be located in the main towns where they are of maximum benefit to the community, and POLICIES TM-3 and TM-10 (paras. 10.3.12 and 10.3.41) which relate to accommodation and other development supporting the tourism industry. Subject to the provisions of Structure Plan Policy MAR 4 (Policy 4, 2004), POLICY R-8 (para. 11.3.50) provides for water related recreation although, in line with POLICY TV-16, major commercial developments such as marinas should be located in the main towns where they contribute to the attraction, regeneration and vitality of such centres.

9.3.44 Proposals for any type of development must meet the relevant requirements of the General Development Guidance policies (Section 5). Proposals for alternative development on sites within the AONB, such as the Castle an Dinas Quarry which has a continuing valid permission, or other sensitive areas must be considered in the context of policies for the protection of such areas and are unlikely to be suitable for industrial or commercial development unless directly related to the rural economy.

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Tourism

9.3.45 Tourism is an important element in the local economy and its effect is shown directly, in the high percentage of employment in the hotels and catering sector, and indirectly, in other sectors such as retailing and other services. However, the nature of the industry is also reflected in the seasonable variations in unemployment, damage to sensitive environments and congestion and pressure on services in summer months. The natural features of the area are the main reasons which draw visitors to Penwith and as such are termed the 'primary' attractions. Policies throughout the Local Plan seek to protect the special qualities and character of the landscape, especially within the AONB.

9.3.46 The future of tourism is highly dependent on its basic resource, the landscape, beaches, wildlife, culture and character of the area. As a result the industry needs to support the protection of this resource if it is to sustain its role in the local economy. The District Council aims to maintain, and if possible improve, opportunities for employment connected with tourism and to protect the quality of the environment and special character of Penwith. The Structure Plan includes general guidance (Policies TOUR 1 to TOUR 4, 1997 & Policy 13, 2004) and the Tourism section (Section 10) considers the environmental and land use issues related to the industry in detail.

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Retailing and Other Services

9.3.47 Surveys carried out in the town centres show that there has been a substantial increase in the overall number of retail and service outlets in use in recent years. The issues relating to shopping and other town centre uses are considered in detail in the Towns and Villages section (Section 7). Policies focus on the viability and vitality of town centres and generally give priority to the location of shopping where it is of most benefit in maintaining existing town centres. The vitality of town centres is likely to contribute directly to opportunities for employment both in retailing and in other uses such as the provision of financial and professional services. In addition, there is a close relationship between 'town centre' uses and other employment generating development including offices, studios and light industrial where these are appropriate to the location. Administrative services, particularly those in or associated with local and central government, are important in employment terms with local authorities and Government departments being among the largest local employers. The importance of the main towns as centres of employment in a range of uses is emphasised in paragraphs 9.3.8 to 9.3.9 (Spatial Strategy).

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Transportation and Infrastructure

9.3.48 Penzance and other harbours, the heliport, Land's End Airport, road and rail services, water and power supply and telecommunications are significant in employment terms, especially when associated activities such as the cleaning and maintenance of railway stock, 'buses and road haulage vehicles are taken into account. The centralisation of services can have the effect of reducing employment opportunities within the District. The Council seeks the continued operation and improvement of transport services and other infrastructure which provide employment both directly and through strengthening the local economy. The importance of Penzance harbour in terms of transportation, primarily in relation to the Isles of Scilly services, and other aspects of the economy is emphasised in the Towns and Villages section (Section 7) and in the Transportation section (Section 12) which considers a range of transport issues. The provision of other infrastructure is considered in the Community Services section (Section 13).

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Manufacturing and Service Industries

9.3.49 While employment in manufacturing has been decreasing, it remains an important element in seeking to achieve a broader based local economy. The Council's approach has been, mainly, to provide serviced industrial estates in suitable locations on the edge of the main towns. The provision of serviced land is considered in paragraphs 9.3.51 to 9.3.65. Other relevant policies include POLICIES E-1, E-2, E-3 and E-4 (paras. 9.3.7, 9.3.13, 9.3.19 and 9.3.25) which relate to industrial and business development in towns and villages. In view of the difficulties associated with identifying new industrial sites, emphasis is placed on meeting the requirements of locally based businesses rather than seeking to attract larger scale enterprises into the area. It is also important to try and retain existing industrial sites and premises for such uses, especially where they are in or close to the main towns and are therefore easily accessible to potential employees (Structure Plan Policy E 3, 1997 and Policy 12, 2004) and POLICY E-10 (para. 9.3.70).

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Higher Education, Information Technology and Creative Industries

9.3.50 A range of new and increasing opportunities for business development and employment is being created in Cornwall around higher education, the use of information technology, arts and media. The Structure Plan identifies the relationship between higher education, research and high technology activities and opportunities to improve the local economy and Policy E 6 (Policy 12, 2004) supports provision for higher education and associated science park development. Improved provision for higher education is also extremely important in terms of providing an alternative to out migration by young people in search of suitable courses and careers. The Combined Universities in Cornwall (CUC) project, supported by Objective One, provides a firm focus for such development in all parts of the County, including Penwith. The substantial increase in the use of information technology has enabled the development of business and employment opportunities in the area both directly and indirectly. This trend is reflected in the significantly higher rate of take up of broadband within Cornwall compared to that in the South West of England which itself is higher than in other regions. Strong art, media and culture influences are also supporting the development of a vibrant creative sector and the Council has adopted a specific strategy to support such opportunities. Individual businesses may be very small and more suited to the re-use of existing buildings, including those in the countryside, than other sectors.

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Provision of Serviced Industrial Land

Amount of Land to be Provided

9.3.51 Land developed specifically for industrial use will only account for a proportion of the total number of jobs intended to be created during the Plan period (para. 9.3.5) but nevertheless remains an important element in the employment strategies of both the Structure and Local Plans. The level of provision approved in the Structure Plan (1997) is for about 30 hectares of land in Penwith over the period 1991 to 2011. (Policy E 1). The provision of land in the Local Plan is required to be in general conformity with the Structure Plan while at the same time being relevant to the needs and characteristics of the District. In determining the amount of land to be provided in each District the Structure Plan has taken into account the particular difficulties in finding environmentally acceptable sites and proposed provision in Penwith is lower as a result. The emerging Structure Plan (2004) does not specify the amount of land to be allocated in the District for industrial, business and commercial uses.

9.3.52 The amount of serviced land to be provided for industrial use has been assessed in relation to the 1997 Structure Plan and has been updated to 2003, the most recent survey data available at the time the Plan was adopted. It takes into account the following:-

  • 11.63 hectares of land provided between 1991 and 2003, including 3.39 hectares specifically for two vegetable packing facilities;
  • 5.83 hectares of land with planning permission or being developed as at April 2003 and
  • 1.7 hectares of land lost from industrial use.

A net total of nearly 16 hectares can be identified under these headings leaving approximately 14 hectares of additional land to be provided during the remainder of the Local Plan period. In the past the provision of serviced industrial land has been carried out primarily by the District and County Councils utilising grants from Dti, RDA and EC sources. On each of the main estates, workshops or larger factory units for let and for sale have been constructed by English Partnerships, on behalf of the Dti or RDA. However, much of the land developed since 1991, or currently available with planning permission, has been brought forward by private developers with, in some cases, relevant Government or European grant aid.

9.3.53 Planning authorities are required to ensure that development plans contain land use polices for different types of industrial and commercial development including specific provision for the types of industry that, although necessary, may be detrimental to amenity or a potential source of pollution (PPG 4). Uses such as scrap yards or waste transfer are examples of those which are difficult to accommodate and may not be appropriate on an industrial estate or 'business park'. PPG 4 further advises that in allocating land for industry and commerce planning authorities should be realistic in their assessment of the needs of business and should aim to ensure that there is sufficient land available which is readily capable of development and includes a choice of sites to meet differing needs, facilitate competition between developers and stimulate economic activity. It is within the context of this advice that the Local Plan strategy for the provision of industrial land has been formulated.

9.3.54 The April 2003 supply of industrial land with unimplemented planning permission amounted to 5.61 hectares in several different locations. Only one of these locations, the Business Park at Marsh Lane, Hayle, has a significant area suitable for a number of different users. While approximately 4.44 hectares remains available at Marsh Lane, the other plots are located at Consols and Penbeagle, St Ives and Chywoone Rural Workshops at St Just. The plots range in size from 0.02 hectare to 0.87 hectare.

9.3.55 The allocation, acquisition and servicing of land for industrial estate development can often take a considerable length of time, and represents a significant investment of resources, whether public or private developers are involved. A clear indication of where future development can take place is essential, in advance of the immediate need, so that financial and other resources can be effectively programmed. The Local Plan strategy for the provision of serviced land, therefore, sets out to achieve the following, within the overall context of polices for the location of land for industry (para. 9.3.56):

  • the identification of at least one industrial estate location, beyond that currently available;
  • provision for industrial uses not appropriate to the town centres or other sites within towns;
  • provision for both larger scale and small workshop developments;
  • provision for uses not likely to be compatible with other business uses on industrial estates and
  • the retention of serviced industrial estates and other key sites, as well as small industrial sites and individual premises, for industrial and business uses.

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Location of Land for Industry

9.3.56 The spatial strategy relevant to the location of industrial land is set out in paragraphs 9.3.8 to 9.3.11 (Spatial Strategy) and identifies that the environmental impact of developing additional serviced land on the edges of towns must be balanced against alternative locations that are equally, or more, accessible. This is the context within which the suitability of specific sites has been considered.

9.3.57 A number of possible sites have been assessed close to the main towns and within the main transport corridor through the District. Assessment was carried out against the following criteria – trip generation, transport modes, impact on landscape, nature conservation, historic environment and built environment, use of agricultural land, use of derelict or other previously developed land, access to the primary route network, access to the railway, access to port facilities, use of existing infrastructure, availability of services, policy conflict re alternative uses of the site, traffic safety, suitability in terms of appearance/ attractiveness, likely cost of servicing/ resources available and likely availability. Sites on the edge of, or close to, Penzance were included in the appraisal but were considered to be unacceptable because of their encroachment into open countryside, which in most cases would not be contained and would result in significant visual impact, or adverse impact on designated open areas – identified in POLICY TV-2 (para. 7.3.9). Such areas have received strong local support.

9.3.58 Other factors were the use of high grade agricultural land or the likely costs of bringing the site forward for development. It was not considered that these factors were outweighed by the benefits of the location in terms of accessibility. Only one site, on land to the east of Penzance which is surplus to railway requirements, is not subject to these objections but it is not of sufficient size to provide for an estate type development and is considered to be of more value in a transport related use. It is safeguarded for such use, therefore in POLICY TP-3 (para. 12.3.19) in line with TRAN2 in the Structure Plan (Policy 27 & 28, 2004). Sites were considered in St. Ives which could provide for the needs of the town but which are not well located to serve the District as a whole. In addition, significant difficulties in providing surface water drainage were identified which precluded their allocation.

9.3.59 In Hayle only the areas to the east and west of the town have good access to the trunk road via the existing roundabouts at Marsh Lane and the former St Erth Creamery. The development of sites in other locations would result in additional traffic movement through the town centre and residential areas. There is industrial land available for development to the east of the town which is the only significant site for future development in the District. To the west of the town, land immediately on the edge of the built up area is prominent in the setting of the estuary and is bisected by the main railway line while the floodplain of the Hayle river is designated as an SSSI.

9.3.60 However, a site to the west of the river was considered as part of the appraisal. This area provides a location that is accessible by both rail and principal 'bus routes from Penzance and St. Ives as well as from Hayle. In addition the location has potential for using existing sidings at St. Erth Station for goods transport, as well as the trunk road network, and could take advantage of improved port facilities at Hayle if they become available through redevelopment proposals. It is also considered that, although the site is not well integrated with the built up area of the town, in landscape terms its impact would be less than the sites assessed on the edge of Penzance because of the proximity of, and limits imposed by, existing development.

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Allocation of Additional Land for Industrial Use

9.3.61 An area of approximately 5.9 hectares (14.6 acres) to the east of the former St. Erth Creamery is contained by the main railway line to the south, the St. Ives branch line to the west and the trunk road to the north. Access can be provided, utilising the existing bridge over the river and railway, from Grigg's Hill provided alterations to provide a satisfactory priority junction layout are carried out and the existing access track alongside the river is improved. In view of the proximity of the watercourse, and the SSSI to the north east, appropriate surface water drainage and interception measures will be required. The site will not be suitable for developments involving hazardous substances and satisfactory arrangements for the prevention of flooding as required by POLICY GD-4 (para. 5.3.11) will also be necessary. No objections are raised to the principle of development by South West Water. While the area is visible from the trunk road, the impact of its development could be softened by effective tree planting and landscaping. It is important that development of the site maximises the transport opportunities provided by the nearby railway station and sidings. A pedestrian route from the Station can be provided through the St. Erth Industrial Estate, by agreement with the developers, and by way of the existing pavement alongside the A30 to cross the branchline, to link in to the site layout at its north western corner. Land adjacent to the sidings on the northern side of the mainline is safeguarded through POLICY TP-3 (para. 12.3.19) for future integrated transport use. These sidings have been used for the movement of scrap metals and provide the opportunity to promote rail freight. The proposed site is well placed to take advantage of this opportunity. In addition it may be feasible to provide new sidings within or adjacent to the site and development of the site should not prejudice this possibility. In order to maximise the use of alternative modes of travel to the site other than the private car, the Council will require developers, or users, of the site to implement and monitor Green Transport Plans which will include:

(i) restrictions on parking allocation;

(ii) targets for non-car modes of transport; and

(iii) enhancement of sustainable transport networks to the site.

A comprehensive design brief should be prepared for the site prior to development. This proposal involves the use of agricultural land graded 2 and 3a in the DEFRA classification which POLICY E-5 (para. 9.3.29) seeks to protect unless outweighed by the importance of the development. However, it is considered that reservation of the site for development of an industrial estate is an essential part of the strategy for generating, and supporting, employment in the District.

9.3.62 PROPOSAL E-A:

AN AREA TO THE EAST OF THE FORMER CREAMERY AT ST. ERTH (Link to Map 14) (5.9 HECTARES) IS PROPOSED FOR INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS USES AS DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USE CLASSES) ORDER, 1987 (AS AMENDED).

DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SITE MUST MAKE PROVISION FOR:-

(i) THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE EXISTING ACCESS TRACK AND ITS JUNCTION WITH THE B3301;

(ii) MEASURES FOR THE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF SURFACE WATER WHICH WILL ENSURE THE PROTECTION OF THE HAYLE ESTUARY AND CARRACK GLADDEN S.S.S.I.;

(iii) THE RETENTION OF EXISTING BOUNDARY TREES AS PART OF A COMPREHENSIVE LANDSCAPING AND TREE PLANTING SCHEME; AND

(iv) SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT ACCESS FOR PEOPLE AND GOODS SECURED BY THE AGREEMENT OF A GREEN TRANSPORT PLAN, PROVIDING THE MEANS TO ACHIEVE A SATISFACTORY PROPORTION OF TRIPS BY NON-CAR MODES, AND SAFE AND ATTRACTIVE PEDESTRIAN ACCESS BETWEEN THE STATION AND THE SITE.

IN ADDITION, THE SITE LAYOUT MUST NOT PREJUDICE THE OPPORTUNITY FOR FUTURE RAIL FREIGHT ACCESS. PLANNING PROPOSALS WILL BE REQUIRED TO ACCORD WITH THE PRINCIPLES OF THE DEVELOPMENT BRIEF.

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9.3.63 Two sites to the south of St. Erth Station are contained between the railway line and the access road serving the refuse transfer station and Start Plantation sewage treatment works. Areas around the sites are wooded and will provide effective screening; however it will be important to retain trees on the edges of, and between, the sites. The area to the south of the access road is designated as a County Wildlife Site and POLICY CC-8 (para. 6.3.43) requires that there is no significant adverse impact from development. There are no objections in principle by South West Water. The existing access road will require improvement and safe pedestrian access should be provided between the station and the sites, either directly or by providing a pavement on the eastern side of the Station Approach road. These sites would be suitable for smaller scale workshop development or, given their non-estate location, could be appropriate for uses which are difficult to accommodate alongside other business uses. In addition the existing railway sidings adjacent to the eastern site offer the possibility in the future of direct access to the railway for freight transport. A Traffic Impact Assessment has been carried out to determine the likely effect of development on the junction between Station Approach and the A30 Trunk road and the results have been discussed with the relevant Highways Authorities. The smaller of the two sites could proceed in the short term provided its use is linked to use of the sidings; however, indications from Railtrack are that use of these sidings is unlikely to be feasible in less than two to five years. Development of the larger of the two sites should be phased to allow for the effects of PROPOSAL E-A (para. 9.3.62) and development of the smaller site to be assessed in terms of traffic flows through the junction. Such an assessment may lead to a requirement for improvements to the junction to be carried out before development can proceed. Development of these sites is unlikely to come forward, therefore, until later in the Plan period and will depend on the Highway Authorities being satisfied that the junction can accommodate the traffic generated in a satisfactory way. In addition, in order to limit the likely incidence of heavy goods vehicle movements to and from the site, the floorspace of individual units will be restricted to 250 square metres. The 4 metre height restriction on the approach road from the station will also serve as a limitation on the use of particularly large vehicles. These sites are shown as grade 2 in the DEFRA classification but their allocation for industrial use is considered necessary in supporting the local economy and taking advantage of the opportunity for integrated transport facilities.

9.3.64 PROPOSAL E-B:

AN AREA TO THE SOUTH OF THE RAILWAY LINE AT ST. ERTH STATION (Link to Map 14) (1.43 HECTARES) IS PROPOSED FOR INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS USES AS DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USES CLASSES) ORDER, 1987 (AS AMENDED).

DEVELOPMENT MUST BE PHASED TO FOLLOW IMPLEMENTATION OF PROPOSALS E-C AND E-A TO THE EXTENT THAT THE IMPACT OF ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC CAN BE ASSESSED TO ENSURE THAT THERE IS NO DETRIMENTAL EFFECT ON THE A.30 JUNCTION.

PROPOSALS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE SITE MUST MAKE PROVISION FOR:-

(i) THE RETENTION OF EXISTING BOUNDARY AND HEDGEROW TREES AS PART OF A COMPREHENSIVE LANDSCAPING AND TREE PLANTING SCHEME;

(ii) SAFE PEDESTRIAN ACCESS BETWEEN THE STATION AND THE SITE; AND

(iii) THE FLOORSPACE OF INDUSTRIAL UNITS TO BE LIMITED TO 250 SQUARE METRES.

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9.3.65 PROPOSAL E-C:

AN AREA TO THE SOUTH OF THE RAILWAY LINE AT ST. ERTH STATION (Link to Map 14) (0.42 HECTARE) IS PROPOSED FOR INDUSTRIAL OR BUSINESS USES.

PROPOSALS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE SITE MUST MAKE PROVISION FOR:-

(i) THE RETENTION OF EXISTING BOUNDARY TREES AS PART OF A COMPREHENSIVE LANDSCAPING AND TREE PLANTING SCHEME;

(ii) SAFE PEDESTRIAN ACCESS BETWEEN THE STATION AND THE SITE; AND

(iii) USE OF THE ADJACENT SIDINGS FOR THE LOADING AND UNLOADING OF MATERIALS.

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9.3.66 An additional area of land to the north of the Start Plantation sewage works was identified as surplus to the operational requirements of South West Water. It is bounded by the railway line to the north, a screening bund to the south and the County Environmental Services depot to the west and is served by the same access road as PROPOSALS E-B and E-C (paras. 9.3.64 and 9.3.65). In view of the proximity of the watercourse, and the SSSI to the north east, appropriate surface water drainage and interception measures will be required. In addition, satisfactory arrangements for the prevention of flooding, as required by POLICY GD-4 (para. 5.3.11), will be necessary. The bund between the site and the treatment plant, should be retained. If the agricultural and service access to the east of the site can be improved it could link to the access road serving PROPOSAL E-A. Use of the existing access road to the west will result in an increase in traffic using the junction between Station Approach and the A30 trunk road. However, it has been agreed with the relevant Highways Authorities that development of the site should be phased to follow implementation of PROPOSALS E-A, E-B and E-C (paras. 9.3.62, 9.3.64 and 9.3.65) subject to the implications for the junction being assessed and improvement of the junction being provided if necessary. The site is suitable for smaller scale development and the floorspace of individual units will be restricted to limit the likelihood of heavy vehicle movements. While the land is grade 2 in the agricultural classification its allocation for industrial use is considered justified in supporting the local economy.

9.3.67 PROPOSAL E-D:

AN AREA TO THE NORTH OF THE SEWAGE TREATMENT WORKS AT ST ERTH (Link to Map 14) (1.46 HECTARES) IS PROPOSED FOR INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS USES AS DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USE CLASSES) ORDER, 1987 (AS AMENDED).

UNLESS AN ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF ACCESS CAN BE PROVIDED TO THE EAST, DEVELOPMENT MUST BE PHASED TO FOLLOW IMPLEMENTATION OF PROPOSALS E-C, E-A AND E-B TO THE EXTENT THAT THE IMPACT OF ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC CAN BE ASSESSED TO ENSURE THAT THERE IS NO DETRIMENTAL EFFECT ON THE A.30 JUNCTION.

THE FLOORSPACE OF INDIVIDUAL UNITS MUST NOT EXCEED 250 SQUARE METRES.

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Retention of Existing Industrial Sites and Premises

9.3.68 The provision of serviced industrial estates represents a significant investment of resources and is an essential element in providing a broader economic base and opportunities for growth. The safeguarding of existing estates for the specific purposes for which they were approved is important in maintaining a supply of serviced industrial land without adding to the requirement for new greenfield sites. Existing industrial premises and non-estate sites are also a valuable resource in terms of supporting the economy of the District. Policy E 3 (Policy 12, 2004) in the Structure Plan seeks to retain industrial land and buildings to accommodate industrial uses wherever they make an important contribution to the stock of employment sites and premises in the County.

9.3.69 In Penwith, the difficulty of identifying acceptable new sites, particularly close to the main towns, makes the retention of existing sites and premises an important consideration. In determining between competing uses for a site its suitability for continued industrial use in terms of compatibility with surrounding uses, its location in terms of accessibility to the workforce and the contribution made to local employment or other essential needs by an alternative use will be fully considered. Industrial estates are normally suitable for the full ranges of uses defined in Classes B1, B2 and B8 of the Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987, which include business, general industry and storage or distribution, unless the proximity of dwellings justifies a restriction to uses in Class B1 which can be carried out without being detrimental to residential amenity. As a result, the Local Plan approach places emphasis on the retention of sites on estates. Businesses which are predominately retail in nature, and deal directly with the general public, will not be acceptable and will be considered in the context of the approach to shopping developments outlined in paragraphs 7.3.48 to 7.3.61.

9.3.70 Non-estate sites and buildings will often be located within towns and villages and are well located, therefore, for continued industrial or business use. Many uses fall within Class B1 of the Use Classes Order which are defined as those which can be carried out in a residential area without detriment to the amenity of the area. Class B1 uses are likely to be compatible, therefore, with surrounding uses including housing. Certain types of premises can provide a very specific resource, for example the number of studios and workshops occupied by those engaged in the arts which is particularly relevant in St. Ives.

9.3.71 The main pressure leading to the loss of individual premises is conversion to residential use and, in general terms, it would be difficult to argue that residential use within a town or village would be inappropriate. However, where the requirement for housing can be met by other forms of development, and the stock of workshop premises is an important economic resource, it is considered that an emphasis on resisting their loss is justified. The contribution made by a particular site or building to the stock of employment premises will be assessed in each case taking into account its suitability for continued industrial or business use or for specialised uses important to the local economy.

9.3.72 POLICY E-10:

ON THE EXISTING INDUSTRIAL ESTATES LISTED BELOW, AND ON THE SITES PROPOSED IN THE PLAN, THE CHANGE OF USE OF LAND OR BUILDINGS, TO A USE OTHER THAN BUSINESS, GENERAL INDUSTRY OR STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION, AS DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USE CLASSES) ORDER, 1987 (AS AMENDED), WILL NOT BE PERMITTED.

JELBERT WAY, PENZANCE (Link to Map 10)
PONIOU WAY, LONG ROCK (Link to Proposal Map East (West))
PONIOU ROAD, LONG ROCK (Link to Proposal Map East (West))
CUXHAVEN WAY, LONG ROCK (Link to Proposal Map East (West))
LONG ROCK BUSINESS PARK (Link to Proposal Map East (West))
STABLE HOBBA, NEWLYN (Link to Map 8)
ROSPEATH LANE, CROWLAS (Link to Map 11)
PENBEAGLE, ST. IVES (Link to Map 16)
CONSOLS, ST. IVES (Link to Map 16)
GUILDFORD ROAD, HAYLE (Link to Map 16)
HAYLE BUSINESS PARK, MARSH LANE, HAYLE (Link to Map 17 and Link to Proposal Map East (Central))
TREWELLARD, PENDEEN (Link to Map 6)

IN ADDITION THE CHANGE OF USE OF BUILDINGS IN INDUSTRIAL OR BUSINESS USE, WHICH MAKE A CONTRIBUTION TO THE STOCK OF EMPLOYMENT PREMISES IN THE LOCALITY, TO USES OTHER THAN THOSE DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USES CLASSES) ORDER, 1987 (AS AMENDED) WILL NOT BE PERMITTED WHERE THAT WOULD HARM BUSINESS AND EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE AREA.

9.3.73 While POLICY E-10 relates to the retention of employment premises in general terms, and allows for the suitability of individual sites to be assessed, a number of specific sites have been identified which are suitable for continued industrial use and make an important contribution either within their locality or within the District as a whole. There is a continuing high demand for suitable workspace and existing sites and premises provide a valuable alternative to properties on serviced estates or to new sites. There would be difficulty in replacing them, particularly those that are located within the built up area. It is considered therefore, that their value in employment use outweighs that in any other use and their loss would harm business and employment opportunities in the area. As a result the following proposals reserve these sites for continued industrial or business use. Most of the sites are in the Penzance area, some on the edge of the town and their local importance is emphasised by the difficulty of identifying new sites in this area. Proposals for development or redevelopment of these sites must take into account the requirements of relevant policies in the General Development Guidance section (Section 5), particularly POLICIES GD-2 and GD-3 (paras. 5.3.7 and 5.3.9) which relate to design and layout, landscaping and planting. POLICY E-11 (para. 9.3.88) will also be important in ensuring compatibility with surrounding uses.

9.3.74 A site adjacent to the Penzance distributor road is currently used as a liquid propane gas storage depot. The existing access is from Chy an Dour Coombe and access direct to the distributor road would not be acceptable. If the site became available for redevelopment it would be suitable for the provision of small workshop units and the design and use of materials should take account of the requirements in POLICIES GD-1 and GD-2 (paras. 5.3.3 and 5.3.7). Such a scheme could result in an overall improvement in the appearance of the site, as well as a useful contribution to locally available workspace.

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9.3.75 PROPOSAL E-E:

AN AREA AT THE WESTERN END OF CHY AN DOUR COOMBE (Link to Map 10) (0.2 HECTARE) IS RESERVED FOR INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS USES AS DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USES CLASSES) ORDER, 1987 (AS AMENDED).

9.3.76 The site of a former quarry in Chy an Dour Coombe is currently used for the storage and distribution of coal. Such a site is well suited to accommodating uses which are inappropriate on industrial estates. If the present use ceases, or is relocated, the site should be retained for industrial or storage development and, while the development of additional workspace could be acceptable, the site is most suited to uses which have specialised requirements and which are difficult to provide for on other sites.

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9.3.77 PROPOSAL E-F:

AN AREA IN CHY AN DOUR COOMBE (Link to Map 10) (0.24 HECTARE) IS RESERVED FOR INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS ACTIVITIES WHICH, BECAUSE OF THEIR APPEARANCE OR AN UNAVOIDABLE LEVEL OF NOISE, DUST, FUMES, VIBRATION OR SMELL, ARE DIFFICULT TO ACCOMMODATE ALONGSIDE OTHER BUSINESSES.

9.3.78 A similar site at the eastern end of Chy an Dour Coombe was previously used as a coal yard but is currently in use for vehicle and bodywork repairs. It provides a useful site on the edge of the town for workspace and opportunities to improve the appearance of the site will be pursued if they arise.

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9.3.79 PROPOSAL E-G:

AN AREA AT THE EASTERN END OF CHY AN DOUR COOMBE (Link to Map 10) (0.19 HECTARE) IS RESERVED FOR INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS USES AS DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USES CLASSES) ORDER, 1987 (AS AMENDED).

9.3.80 Another former quarry to the west of Gulval could also accommodate uses unsuited to industrial estate or 'in town' locations if the present use, as a contractor's depot, ceases. While previous uses on the site have generated a degree of traffic movement, POLICY GD-5 (para. 5.3.13), which relates to access and the capacity of the approach roads, will be relevant in assessing the appropriateness of proposals requiring planning permission.

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9.3.81 PROPOSAL E-H:

AN AREA TO THE WEST OF GULVAL (Link to Map 10) (0.11 HECTARE) WILL BE RESERVED FOR INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS ACTIVITIES WHICH, BECAUSE OF THEIR APPEARANCE OR AN UNAVOIDABLE LEVEL OF NOISE, DUST, FUMES, VIBRATION OR SMELL, ARE DIFFICULT TO ACCOMMODATE ALONGSIDE OTHER BUSINESSES.

9.3.82 An area of land adjacent to Rospeath Lane Industrial Estate has been granted planning permission previously for industrial use and access is available from the existing estate layout. POLICY GD-2 (para. 5.3.7) which relates to landscaping and planting will be specifically relevant in protecting the amenity of adjacent residential development on the western boundary. South West Water advise that water supply and sewerage can be provided.

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9.3.83 PROPOSAL E-I:

AN AREA ADJACENT TO THE ROSPEATH LANE INDUSTRIAL (prev. E-H) ESTATE (0.32 HECTARE) IS RESERVED FOR INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS USES AS DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USE CLASSES) ORDER, 1987 (AS AMENDED).

9.3.84 A site at Ludgvan Leaze is occupied by a number of buildings in a mixture of industrial and commercial uses. Planning permission has previously been granted for partial redevelopment to provide small workshop units but has expired. The site is outside a town or village but is easily accessible from the trunk road and a principal bus route. While a range of industrial and business uses would be acceptable within the site any redevelopment proposals on the southern part of the site should be compatible with adjacent dwellings, in line with POLICY E-11 (para. 9.3.88) and, to meet the requirements of POLICY GD-1 (para. 5.3.3), only small scale development is likely to be acceptable with appropriate landscaping and screening on the northern and eastern boundaries.

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9.3.85 PROPOSAL E-J:

AN AREA AT LUDGVAN LEAZE (Link to Map 11) (0.57 HECTARE) IS PROPOSED FOR INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS USES AS DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USE CLASSES) ORDER, 1987 (AS AMENDED). PROPOSALS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SITE MUST BE OF A FORM, BULK AND GENERAL DESIGN WHICH LIMITS THEIR IMPACT ON THE SURROUNDING LANDSCAPE.

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9.3.86 The site of the former Creamery, adjacent to St. Erth station, occupies a key location within the District, adjacent to both the A.30 Trunk road and the railway and accessible from each of the main towns by rail and 'bus services. Policy TRAN 2 in the Structure Plan requires that development proposals should not prejudice the use of the railway for passenger and goods transport including the restoration of currently disused lines and ancillary land where transport use remains feasible. Since the site has such an important relationship with the railway line the potential for future links should be safeguarded within future development or redevelopment proposals.

9.3.87 PROPOSAL E-K:

AN AREA COMPRISING THE CREAMERY SITE AT ST. ERTH (Link to Map 14) (2.68 HECTARES) IS RESERVED FOR INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS USES AS DEFINED IN CLASSES B1, B2 AND B8 OF THE TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (USE CLASSES) ORDER, 1987 (AS AMENDED).

PROPOSALS FOR THE REDEVELOPMENT OF THIS SITE MUST NOT PREJUDICE THE POSSIBLE FUTURE USE OF THE RAILWAY FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS AND PASSENGERS.

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Design, Layout and Control over Development

9.3.88 All proposals coming forward for industrial and business development, whether on the sites proposed in the plan or on other sites, must meet the relevant requirements of the General Development Guidance policies in Section 5. These relate to issues such as the provision of adequate services, the avoidance of noise, light, air or water pollution, access for disabled people, energy efficiency and crime prevention measures in addition to appropriate scale and siting, landscaping, parking and access arrangements, design, layout and the use of materials. Surface water drainage can be difficult to resolve for industrial development and must be paid particular attention, together with appropriate measures for the prevention of pollution. Policy ENV 12 of the Structure Plan is also an important consideration in terms of respecting local distinctiveness (Policy 2, 2004).

9.3.89 In addition to meeting these general requirements proposals for industrial and business developments should be compatible with surrounding uses. While the General Development Guidance policies require issues such as landscaping and planting and noise, light, air or water pollution to be addressed the following policy provides a greater emphasis on controlling the effect of industrial development, which is particularly relevant in view of the deletion of the Special Industrial Groups from the Use Classes Order. The conditions to be imposed will take into account the location of the site and its proximity to other uses; uses may be limited to Class B1 for example, where the site is in or very close to, a residential area. The visual appearance of industrial estates is also an important consideration in reducing impact on the environment and from the perspective of encouraging business development in Penwith since the small number of principal estates has to provide for a wide range of industrial and business uses. In line with the Plan's approach to the retention of industrial sites, including those newly granted permission for industrial and business uses, retail sales will only be permitted where they are ancillary to the main business operation and directly related to the goods manufactured.

9.3.90 POLICY E-11:

PROPOSALS FOR INDUSTRIAL OR BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT WILL BE PERMITTED WHERE:-

(i) NUISANCE FROM NOISE, FUMES, DUST, VIBRATION OR SMELL IS MINIMISED AND SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES ARE COMPATIBLE WITH SURROUNDING USES;

(ii) OUTSIDE STORAGE AREAS ARE DEFINED AND EFFECTIVELY SCREENED; AND

(iii) OUTSIDE TOWN CENTRES ANY RETAIL SALES ARE ANCILLARY TO THE MAIN BUSINESS OPERATION AND DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE GOODS MANUFACTURED ON THE PREMISES.

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Table 2: Supply of Land for Industrial and Business Uses, Penwith Local Plan (April 2003)

    Amount of Land (ha)
Developed 1991-2003:   11.63 ha.
Being Developed (April 2003):   0.22 ha.
Land with Planning Permission (April 2003):   5.61 ha.
    17.46 ha.
Significant Losses of Land from Industrial Use (1991-2003)   1.70 ha.
    15.46 ha. net.
Additional land proposed in the Local Plan    
Filler Graphic Adjacent to former Creamery, St. Erth Station    
  (PROPOSAL E-A) 5.9 ha.    
  South of the railway line, St. Erth Station    
  (PROPOSAL E-B) 1.43 ha.  
  (PROPOSAL E-C) 0.42 ha.  
  North of Sewage treatment works St. Erth    
  (PROPOSAL E-D) 1.46 ha.  
    9.21 ha.
Total Provision (net):   24.67 ha.

Source: Penwith District Council.

Notes:
i) Structure Plan Requirement, 1991-2011 = 30 ha.
ii) PROPOSALS E-E to E-K relate to the retention of existing sites.
iii) The information in Table 2 has been updated to April 2003, the most recent survey data available when the Plan was adopted. The development and use of sites is monitored on an annual basis and the results are publicly available.

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Summary of POLICIES and PROPOSALS

TOPIC LOCAL PLAN POLICIES/PROPOSALS STRUCTURE PLAN POLICIES 1997 (2004)
Sustainable approach E-1 SP 1 (Policy 1)
Spatial Strategy (ST-1)  
Development in towns E-2 (GD-1, GD-2, GD-3, GD-4, GD-5) SP 2, E 2, E 4
Use of land and premises E-4, E-10 (Policies 14, 16 & 25)
The rural economy   E 9 (Policy 11)
Development in villages E-3, E-4  
Development outside towns and villages E-4, E-6, E-7 (CC-1, CC-3) E 10 (Policy 26)
Re-Use of existing buildings E-4, (GD-7) ENV 11 (Policy 3)
Agriculture   E 7, ENV 8 (Policy 11)
Protection of agricultural land E-5 E 8
Farm diversification E-6 E 10 (Policy 3)
Essential related development E-7, E-3  
Fishing E-8 MAR 5 (Policy 4)
Newlyn Harbour area E-9 MAR 4, MAR 6 (Policy 2)
Mining and quarrying   MQ 1 to MQ 5 (Policy 5)
Tourism (TM-1 to TM-13) TOUR1 to TOUR4 (Policy13)
Retailing and other services (TV-16, TV-17, TV-18, TV-19, TV-20) SHOP 1 to SHOP 3 (Policy 14)
Manufacturing and service industries E-1, E-2, E-3, E-4, E-10 E 1, E 2, E 3, E 4, E 9, ENV 11 (Policy 12)
Higher education   E 6
Provision of serviced land    
Amount of land to be provided   E 1,
Location of land for industry E-1 E 2, SP 2 (Policy 12)
Allocation of additional land

E-A, E-B, E-C

 
Retention of existing industrial sites/premises E-10, E-E, E-F, E-G, E-H, E-I, E-J, E-K E 3 (Policy 12)
Design, layout and control over development E-11, (GD-1, GD-2, GD-3, GD-4, GD-5) ENV 12 (Policies 1, 12, 25 & 26)
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